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Sökning: WFRF:(O'Rourke L)

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  • Bammer, G., et al. (författare)
  • Expertise in research integration and implementation for tackling complex problems: when is it needed, where can it be found and how can it be strengthened?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Palgrave Communications. - : Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.. - 2055-1045. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expertise in research integration and implementation is an essential but often overlooked component of tackling complex societal and environmental problems. We focus on expertise relevant to any complex problem, especially contributory expertise, divided into 'knowing-that' and 'knowing-how.' We also deal with interactional expertise and the fact that much expertise is tacit. We explore three questions. First, in examining 'when is expertise in research integration and implementation required?,' we review tasks essential (a) to developing more comprehensive understandings of complex problems, plus possible ways to address them, and (b) for supporting implementation of those understandings into government policy, community practice, business and social innovation, or other initiatives. Second, in considering 'where can expertise in research integration and implementation currently be found?,' we describe three realms: (a) specific approaches, including interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, systems thinking and sustainability science; (b) case-based experience that is independent of these specific approaches; and (c) research examining elements of integration and implementation, specifically considering unknowns and fostering innovation. We highlight examples of expertise in each realm and demonstrate how fragmentation currently precludes clear identification of research integration and implementation expertise. Third, in exploring 'what is required to strengthen expertise in research integration and implementation?,' we propose building a knowledge bank. We delve into three key challenges: compiling existing expertise, indexing and organising the expertise to make it widely accessible, and understanding and overcoming the core reasons for the existing fragmentation. A growing knowledge bank of expertise in research integration and implementation on the one hand, and accumulating success in addressing complex societal and environmental problems on the other, will form a virtuous cycle so that each strengthens the other. Building a coalition of researchers and institutions will ensure this expertise and its application are valued and sustained.
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  • Pavey, S, et al. (författare)
  • Microarray expression profiling in melanoma reveals a BRAF mutation signature
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5594. ; 23:23, s. 4060-4067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have used microarray gene expression pro. ling and machine learning to predict the presence of BRAF mutations in a panel of 61 melanoma cell lines. The BRAF gene was found to be mutated in 42 samples (69%) and intragenic mutations of the NRAS gene were detected in seven samples (11%). No cell line carried mutations of both genes. Using support vector machines, we have built a classifier that differentiates between melanoma cell lines based on BRAF mutation status. As few as 83 genes are able to discriminate between BRAF mutant and BRAF wild-type samples with clear separation observed using hierarchical clustering. Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize the relationship between a BRAF mutation signature and that of a generalized mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) activation ( either BRAF or NRAS mutation) in the context of the discriminating gene list. We observed that samples carrying NRAS mutations lie somewhere between those with or without BRAF mutations. These observations suggest that there are gene-specific mutation signals in addition to a common MAPK activation that result from the pleiotropic effects of either BRAF or NRAS on other signaling pathways, leading to measurably different transcriptional changes.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 26
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