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Sökning: WFRF:(O’Brien Edward P.)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
  • Zhang, Guojie, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1311-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
  • Cant, David J. H., et al. (författare)
  • Surface Properties of Nanocrystalline PbS Films Deposited at the Water-Oil Interface: A Study of Atmospheric Aging
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Langmuir. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0743-7463. ; 31:4, s. 1445-1453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanocrystalline thin films of PbS are obtained in a straightforward reaction by precipitation at the interface between toluene (containing a Pb precursor) and water (containing Na2S). Lead thiobiuret [Pb(SON(CN(i)Pr-2)(2))(2)] and lead diethyldithiocarbamate [Pb(S2CNEt2)(2)] precursors are used. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, revealing typical particle sizes of 10-40 nm and preferred (200) orientation. Synchrotron-excited depth-profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the depth-dependent chemical composition as a function of surface aging in air for periods of up to 9 months. The as-synthesized films show a 1:1 Pb/S composition. Initial degradation occurs to form lead hydroxide and small quantities of surface-adsorbed -SH species. A lead-deficient Pb1-xS phase is produced as the aging proceeds. Oxidation of the sulfur occurs later to form sulfite and sulfate products that are highly localized at the surface layers of the nanocrystals. These species show logarithmic growth kinetics, demonstrating that the sulfite/sulfate layer acts to passivate the nanocrystals. Our results demonstrate that the initial reaction of the PbS nanocrystals (forming lead hydroxide) is incongruent. The results are discussed in the context of the use of PbS nanocrystals as light-harvesting elements in next-generation solar technology.
  • FitzGerald, Edward A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiplexed experimental strategies for fragment library screening using SPR biosensors
  • 2020
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology (SPR) is ideally suited for fragment-based lead discovery. However, generally suitable experimental procedures or detailed protocols are lacking, especially for structurally or physico-chemically challenging targets or when tool compounds are lacking. Success depends on accounting for the features of both the target and the chemical library, purposely designing screening experiments for identification and validation of hits with desired specificity and mode-of-action, and availability of orthogonal methods capable of confirming fragment hits. By adopting a multiplexed strategy, the range of targets and libraries amenable to an SPR biosensor-based approach for identifying hits is considerably expanded. We here illustrate innovative strategies using five challenging targets and variants thereof. Two libraries of 90 and 1056 fragments were screened using two different flow-based SPR biosensor systems, allowing different experimental approaches. Practical considerations and procedures accounting for the characteristics of the proteins and libraries, and that increase robustness, sensitivity, throughput and versatility are highlighted.Competing Interest StatementAnna Moberg, Maria T. Lindgren and Claes Holmgren work for Cytiva, which produce Biacore systems.
  • Nilsson, Ola B., et al. (författare)
  • Cotranslational Protein Folding inside the Ribosome Exit Tunnel
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 12:10, s. 1533-1540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At what point during translation do proteins fold? It is well established that proteins can fold cotranslationally outside the ribosome exit tunnel, whereas studies of folding inside the exit tunnel have so far detected only the formation of helical secondary structure and collapsed or partially structured folding intermediates. Here, using a combination of co-translational nascent chain force measurements, inter-subunit fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies on single translating ribosomes, molecular dynamics simulations, and cryoelectron microscopy, we show that a small zinc-finger domain protein can fold deep inside the vestibule of the ribosome exit tunnel. Thus, for small protein domains, the ribosome itself can provide the kind of sheltered folding environment that chaperones provide for larger proteins.
  • O'Brien, Sallyarm L., et al. (författare)
  • CENP-F expression is associated with poor prognosis and chromosomal instability in patients with primary breast cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 120:7, s. 1434-1443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA microarrays have the potential to classify tumors according to their transcriptome. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the validation of biomarkers by offering a high-throughput approach to sample analysis. We reanalyzed a high profile breast cancer DNA microarray dataset containing 96 tumor samples using a powerful statistical approach, between group analyses. Among the genes we identified was centromere protein-F (CENP-F), a gene associated with poor prognosis. In a published follow-up breast cancer DNA microarray study, comprising 295 tumour samples, we found that CENP-F upregulation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p < 0.001) and reduced metastasis-free survival (p < 0.001). To validate and expand upon these findings, we used 2 independent breast cancer patient cohorts represented on TMAs. CENP-F protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 91 primary breast cancer samples from cohort I and 289 samples from cohort II. CENP-F correlated with markers of aggressive tumor behavior including ER negativity and high tumor grade. In cohort I, CENP-F was significantly associated with markers of CIN including cyclin E, increased telomerase activity, c-Myc amplification and aneuploidy. In cohort II CENP-F correlated with VEGFR2, phosphorylated Ets-2 and Ki67, and in multivariate analysis, was an independent predictor of worse breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.036) and overall survival (p = 0.040). In conclusion, we identified CENP-F as a biomarker associated with poor outcome in breast cancer and showed several novel associations of biological significance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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