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Sökning: WFRF:(Ofek Eran O.)

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1.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • The Detection Of A Sn Iin In Optical Follow-Up Observations Of Icecube Neutrino Events
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 811:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.degrees 54. It has a redshift of z = 0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300 Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2 sigma within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: it is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.
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2.
  • Coughlin, Michael W., et al. (författare)
  • GROWTH on S190425z : Searching Thousands of Square Degrees to Identify an Optical or Infrared Counterpart to a Binary Neutron Star Merger with the Zwicky Transient Facility and Palomar Gattini-IR
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : American Astronomical Society. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 885:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The third observing run by LVC has brought the discovery of many compact binary coalescences. Following the detection of the first binary neutron star merger in this run (LIGO/Virgo S190425z), we performed a dedicated follow-up campaign with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and Palomar Gattini-IR telescopes. The initial skymap of this single-detector gravitational wave (GW) trigger spanned most of the sky observable from Palomar Observatory. Covering 8000 deg(2) of the initial skymap over the next two nights, corresponding to 46% integrated probability, ZTF system achieved a depth of 21 m(AB) in g- and r-bands. Palomar Gattini-IR covered 2200 square degrees in J-band to a depth of 15.5 mag, including 32% integrated probability based on the initial skymap. The revised skymap issued the following day reduced these numbers to 21% for the ZTF and 19% for Palomar Gattini-IR. We narrowed 338,646 ZTF transient ?alerts? over the first two nights of observations to 15 candidate counterparts. Two candidates, ZTF19aarykkb and ZTF19aarzaod, were particularly compelling given that their location, distance, and age were consistent with the GW event, and their early optical light curves were photometrically consistent with that of kilonovae. These two candidates were spectroscopically classified as young core-collapse supernovae. The remaining candidates were ruled out as supernovae. Palomar Gattini-IR did not identify any viable candidates with multiple detections only after merger time. We demonstrate that even with single-detector GW events localized to thousands of square degrees, systematic kilonova discovery is feasible.
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3.
  • De, Kishalay, et al. (författare)
  • iPTF 16hgs : A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 866:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calcium-rich gap transients represent an intriguing new class of faint and fast-evolving supernovae that exhibit strong [Ca II] emission in their nebular phase spectra. In this paper, we present the discovery and follow-up observations of a faint and fast-evolving transient, iPTF 16hgs, that exhibited a double-peaked light curve. Exhibiting a Type Ib spectrum in the photospheric phase and an early transition to a [Ca II] dominated nebular phase, iPTF 16hgs shows properties consistent with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, with two important exceptions. First, while the second peak of the light curve is similar to other Ca-rich gap transients, the first blue and fast-fading peak (declining over approximate to 2 days) is unique to this source. Second, we find that iPTF 16hgs occurred in the outskirts (projected offset of approximate to 6 kpc approximate to 1.9 R-eff) of a low-metallicity (approximate to 0.4 Z(circle dot)), star-forming, dwarf spiral galaxy. Deep limits from late-time radio observations suggest a low-density environment for the source. If iPTF 16hgs shares explosion physics with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, the first peak can be explained by the presence of 0.01 M-circle dot of Ni-56 in the outer layers the ejecta, reminiscent of some models of He-shell detonations on WDs. However, if iPTF 16hgs is physically unrelated to the class, the first peak is consistent with shock cooling emission (of an envelope with a mass of approximate to 0.08 M-circle dot and radius of approximate to 13 R-circle dot) in a core-collapse explosion of a highly stripped massive star in a close binary system.
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4.
  • De, Kishalay, et al. (författare)
  • The Zwicky Transient Facility Census of the Local Universe. I. Systematic Search for Calcium-rich Gap Transients Reveals Three Related Spectroscopic Subclasses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 905:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the Zwicky Transient Facility alert stream, we are conducting a large spectroscopic campaign to construct a complete, volume-limited sample of transients brighter than 20 mag, and coincident within 100 '' of galaxies in the Census of the Local Universe catalog. We describe the experiment design and spectroscopic completeness from the first 16 months of operations, which have classified 754 supernovae. We present results from a systematic search for calcium-rich gap transients in the sample of 22 low-luminosity (peak absolute magnitude M > -17), hydrogen-poor events found in the experiment. We report the detection of eight new events, and constrain their volumetric rate to greater than or similar to 15% +/- 5% of the SN Ia rate. Combining this sample with 10 previously known events, we find a likely continuum of spectroscopic properties ranging from events with SN Ia-like features (Ca-Ia objects) to those with SN Ib/c-like features (Ca-Ib/c objects) at peak light. Within the Ca-Ib/c events, we find two populations distinguished by their red (g - r approximate to 1.5 mag) or green (g - r approximate to 0.5 mag) colors at the r-band peak, wherein redder events show strong line blanketing features and slower light curves (similar to Ca-Ia objects), weaker He lines, and lower [Ca II]/[O I] in the nebular phase. We find that all together the spectroscopic continuum, volumetric rates, and striking old environments are consistent with the explosive burning of He shells on low-mass white dwarfs. We suggest that Ca-Ia and red Ca-Ib/c objects arise from the double detonation of He shells, while green Ca-Ib/c objects are consistent with low-efficiency burning scenarios like detonations in low-density shells or deflagrations.
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5.
  • Strotjohann, Nora L., et al. (författare)
  • Bright, Months-long Stellar Outbursts Announce the Explosion of Interaction-powered Supernovae
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 907:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interaction-powered supernovae (SNe) explode within an optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) that could be ejected during eruptive events. To identify and characterize such pre-explosion outbursts, we produce forced-photometry light curves for 196 interacting SNe, mostly of Type IIn, detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility between early 2018 and 2020 June. Extensive tests demonstrate that we only expect a few false detections among the 70,000 analyzed pre-explosion images after applying quality cuts and bias corrections. We detect precursor eruptions prior to 18 Type IIn SNe and prior to the Type Ibn SN 2019uo. Precursors become brighter and more frequent in the last months before the SN and month-long outbursts brighter than magnitude -13 occur prior to 25% (5-69%, 95% confidence range) of all Type IIn SNe within the final three months before the explosion. With radiative energies of up to 10(49) erg, precursors could eject similar to 1 M of material. Nevertheless, SNe with detected precursors are not significantly more luminous than other SNe IIn, and the characteristic narrow hydrogen lines in their spectra typically originate from earlier, undetected mass-loss events. The long precursor durations require ongoing energy injection, and they could, for example, be powered by interaction or by a continuum-driven wind. Instabilities during the neon- and oxygen-burning phases are predicted to launch precursors in the final years to months before the explosion; however, the brightest precursor is 100 times more energetic than anticipated.
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6.
  • Arcavi, Iair, et al. (författare)
  • Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 210-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.
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7.
  • Chen, Ping, et al. (författare)
  • A 12.4-day periodicity in a close binary system after a supernova
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 625:7994, s. 253-258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes are the remnants of massive star explosions1. Most massive stars reside in close binary systems2, and the interplay between the companion star and the newly formed compact object has been theoretically explored3, but signatures for binarity or evidence for the formation of a compact object during a supernova explosion are still lacking. Here we report a stripped-envelope supernova, SN 2022jli, which shows 12.4-day periodic undulations during the declining light curve. Narrow Hα emission is detected in late-time spectra with concordant periodic velocity shifts, probably arising from hydrogen gas stripped from a companion and accreted onto the compact remnant. A new Fermi-LAT γ-ray source is temporally and positionally consistent with SN 2022jli. The observed properties of SN 2022jli, including periodic undulations in the optical light curve, coherent Hα emission shifting and evidence for association with a γ-ray source, point to the explosion of a massive star in a binary system leaving behind a bound compact remnant. Mass accretion from the companion star onto the compact object powers the light curve of the supernova and generates the γ-ray emission.
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8.
  • Fransson, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • SN 2019zrk, a bright SN 2009ip analog with a precursor
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2019zrk (also known as ZTF 20aacbyec). The SN shows a > 100 day precursor, with a slow rise, followed by a rapid rise to M ≈ −19.2 in the r and g bands. The post-peak light-curve decline is well fit with an exponential decay with a timescale of ∼39 days, but it shows prominent undulations, with an amplitude of ∼1 mag. Both the light curve and spectra are dominated by an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), probably from previous mass ejections. The spectra evolve from a scattering-dominated Type IIn spectrum to a spectrum with strong P-Cygni absorptions. The expansion velocity is high, ∼16 000 km s−1, even in the last spectra. The last spectrum ∼110 days after the main eruption reveals no evidence for advanced nucleosynthesis. From analysis of the spectra and light curves, we estimate the mass-loss rate to be ∼4 × 10−2 M⊙ yr−1 for a CSM velocity of 100 km s−1, and a CSM mass of 1 M⊙. We find strong similarities for both the precursor, general light curve, and spectral evolution with SN 2009ip and similar SNe, although SN 2019zrk displays a brighter peak magnitude. Different scenarios for the nature of the 09ip-class of SNe, based on pulsational pair instability eruptions, wave heating, and mergers, are discussed.
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9.
  • Ganot, Noam, et al. (författare)
  • The GALEX-PTF Experiment. II. Supernova Progenitor Radius and Energetics via Shock-cooling Modeling
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 931:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early ultraviolet (UV) observations of core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). We present the results from a simultaneous Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) search for early UV emission from SNe. We analyze five CC SNe for which we obtained near-UV (NUV) measurements before the first ground-based R-band detection. We introduce SOPRANOS, a new maximum likelihood fitting tool for models with variable temporal validity windows, and use it to fit the Sapir & Waxman shock-cooling model to the data. We report four Type II SNe with progenitor radii in the range of R* ≈ 600–1100 R⊙ and a shock velocity parameter in the range of vs* ≈ 2700–6000 km s−1 (E/M ≈ 2–8 × 1050 erg/M⊙) and one Type IIb SN with R* ≈ 210 R⊙ and vs* ≈ 11,000 km s−1 (E/M ≈ 1.8 × 1051 erg/M⊙). Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus suggests that a dedicated, systematic SN survey in the NUV band, such as the wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission, is a compelling method to study the properties of SN progenitors and SN energetics.
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10.
  • Ho, Anna Y. Q., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for Late-stage Eruptive Mass Loss in the Progenitor to SN2018gep, a Broad-lined Ic Supernova : Pre-explosion Emission and a Rapidly Rising Luminous Transient
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 887:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present detailed observations of ZTF18abukavn (SN2018gep), discovered in high-cadence data from the Zwicky Transient Facility as a rapidly rising (1.4 +/- 0.1 mag hr(-1)) and luminous (M-g,M- peak = -20 mag) transient. It is spectroscopically classified as a broad-lined stripped-envelope supernova (Ic-BL SN). The high peak luminosity (L-bol greater than or similar to 3 x 10(44) erg s(-1)), the short rise time (t(rise) = 3 days in g band), and the blue colors at peak (g-r similar to -0.4) all resemble the high-redshift Ic-BL iPTF16asu, as well as several other unclassified fast transients. The early discovery of SN2018gep (within an hour of shock breakout) enabled an intensive spectroscopic campaign, including the highest-temperature (T-eff greater than or similar to 40,000 K) spectra of a stripped-envelope SN. A retrospective search revealed luminous (M-g similar to M-r approximate to -14 mag) emission in the days to weeks before explosion, the first definitive detection of precursor emission for a Ic-BL. We find a limit on the isotropic gamma-ray energy release E-gamma,E- iso < 4.9 x 10(48) erg, a limit on X-ray emission L-X < 10(40) erg s(-1), and a limit on radio emission nu L-v less than or similar to 10(37) erg s(-1). Taken together, we find that the early (< 10 days) data are best explained by shock breakout in a massive shell of dense circumstellar material (0.02 M-circle dot) at large radii (3 x 10(14) cm) that was ejected in eruptive pre-explosion mass-loss episodes. The late-time (> 10 days) light curve requires an additional energy source, which could be the radioactive decay of Ni-56.
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