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Sökning: WFRF:(Oldenburg Brian)

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1.
  • Engert, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - Pavia, Italy : Fondazione Ferrata Storti. - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 101:2, s. 115-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at (sic)23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.
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2.
  • Daivadanam, Meena, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle change in Kerala, India : needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP).METHODS: Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised.RESULTS: Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes.CONCLUSION: These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and evaluate a group-based peer support programme that will address cultural and family determinants of lifestyle risks, including family decision-making regarding adoption of healthy dietary and physical activity patterns. Furthermore, we believe that this approach will be feasible, acceptable and effective in these communities; with the potential for scale-up in other parts of India.
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3.
  • Daivadanam, Meena, et al. (författare)
  • The role of context in implementation research for non-communicable diseases : Answering the 'how-to' dilemma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Understanding context and how this can be systematically assessed and incorporated is crucial to successful implementation. We describe how context has been assessed (including exploration or evaluation) in Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) implementation research projects focused on improving health in people with or at risk of chronic disease and how contextual lessons were incorporated into the intervention or the implementation process. Methods Using a web-based semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to collect quantitative and qualitative data across GACD projects (n = 20) focusing on hypertension, diabetes and lung diseases. The use of context-specific data from project planning to evaluation was analyzed using mixed methods and a multi-layered context framework across five levels; 1) individual and family, 2) community, 3) healthcare setting, 4) local or district level, and 5) state or national level. Results Project teams used both qualitative and mixed methods to assess multiple levels of context (avg. = 4). Methodological approaches to assess context were identified as formal and informal assessments, engagement of stakeholders, use of locally adapted resources and materials, and use of diverse data sources. Contextual lessons were incorporated directly into the intervention by informing or adapting the intervention, improving intervention participation or improving communication with participants/stakeholders. Provision of services, equipment or information, continuous engagement with stakeholders, feedback for personnel to address gaps, and promoting institutionalization were themes identified to describe how contextual lessons are incorporated into the implementation process. Conclusions Context is regarded as critical and influenced the design and implementation of the GACD funded chronic disease interventions. There are different approaches to assess and incorporate context as demonstrated by this study and further research is required to systematically evaluate contextual approaches in terms of how they contribute to effectiveness or implementation outcomes.
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4.
  • Dekker, Joost, et al. (författare)
  • Behavioral medicine in China
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. - 1070-5503 .- 1532-7558. ; 21:4, s. 571-573
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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6.
  • Mathews, Elezebeth, et al. (författare)
  • Cultural adaptation of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program for diabetes prevention in India : the Kerala diabetes prevention program (K-DPP)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low-and middle-income countries have been very limited to date. This research-to-action gap is now widely recognised as a major challenge to the prevention and control of diabetes. Reducing the gap is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality and reduced health care costs. The aim of this article is to describe the adaptation, development and refinement of diabetes prevention programs from the USA, Finland and Australia to the State of Kerala, India.Methods: The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program (K-DPP) was adapted to Kerala, India from evidence-based lifestyle interventions implemented in high income countries, namely, Finland, United States and Australia. The adaptation process was undertaken in five phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) formulation of program objectives; 3) program adaptation and development; 4) piloting of the program and its delivery; and 5) program refinement and active implementation.Results: The resulting program, K-DPP, includes four key components: 1) a group-based peer support program for participants; 2) a peer-leader training and support program for lay people to lead the groups; 3) resource materials; and 4) strategies to stimulate broader community engagement. The systematic approach to adaptation was underpinned by evidence-based behavior change techniques.Conclusion: K-DPP is the first well evaluated community-based, peer-led diabetes prevention program in India. Future refinement and utilization of this approach will promote translation of K-DPP to other contexts and population groups within India as well as other low-and middle-income countries. This same approach could also be applied more broadly to enable the translation of effective non-communicable disease prevention programs developed in high-income settings to create context-specific evidence in rapidly developing low-and middle-income countries.
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7.
  • Owolabi, Mayowa O., et al. (författare)
  • Gaps in Guidelines for the Management of Diabetes in Low- and Middle-Income Versus High-Income Countries : A Systematic Review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : AMER DIABETES ASSOC. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 41:5, s. 1097-1105
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE The extent to which diabetes (DM) practice guidelines, often based on evidence from high-income countries (HIC), can be implemented to improve outcomes in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a critical challenge. We carried out a systematic review to compare type 2 DM guidelines in individual LMIC versus HIC over the past decade to identify aspects that could be improved to facilitate implementation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligible guidelines were sought from online databases and websites of diabetes associations and ministries of health. Type 2 DM guidelines published between 2006 and 2016 with accessible full publications were included. Each of the 54 eligible guidelines was assessed for compliance with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards, coverage of the cardiovascular quadrangle (epidemiologic surveillance, prevention, acute care, and rehabilitation), translatability, and its target audiences. RESULTS Most LMIC guidelines were inadequate in terms of applicability, clarity, and dissemination plan as well as socioeconomic and ethical-legal contextualization. LMIC guidelines targeted mainly health care providers, with only a few including patients (7%), payers (11%), and policy makers (18%) as their target audiences. Compared with HIC guidelines, the spectrum of DM clinical care addressed by LMIC guidelines was narrow. Most guidelines from the LMIC complied with less than half of the IOM standards, with 12% of the LMIC guidelines satisfying at least four IOM criteria as opposed to 60% of the HIC guidelines (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A new approach to the contextualization, content development, and delivery of LMIC guidelines is needed to improve outcomes.
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8.
  • Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu, et al. (författare)
  • Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program : study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at 'high risk' of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India.METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30-60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education booklet that is given to the control arm. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome is incidence of T2DM. Secondary outcomes include behavioural, psychosocial, clinical, and biochemical measures. An economic evaluation is planned.DISCUSSION: Results from this trial will contribute to improved policy and practice regarding lifestyle intervention programs to prevent diabetes in India and other resource-constrained settings.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000262909.
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10.
  • Gonzalez Garcia, Manuel, et al. (författare)
  • A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Utilizing Telemedicine for Improving Heart Failure Readmission : Can a Realist Approach Bridge the Translational Divide?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Medicine Insights. - : Sage Publications. - 1179-5468 .- 1179-5468. ; 13
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Telemedicine and digital health technologies hold great promise for improving clinical care of heart failure. However, inconsistent and contradictory findings from randomized controlled trials have so far discouraged widespread adoption of digital health in routine clinical practice. We undertook this review study to summarize the study outcomes of the use of exploring the evidence for telemedicine in the clinical care of patients with heart failure and readmissions.Methods: We inspected the references of guidelines and searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials published over the past 10 years on the use of telemedicine for reducing readmission in heart failure. We utilized a modified realist review approach to identify the underlying contextual mechanisms for the intervention(s) in each randomized controlled trial, evaluating outcomes of the intervention and understanding how and under what conditions they worked. To provide uniformity, all extracted data were synthesized using adapted domains from the taxonomy for disease management created by the Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group.Results: A total of 12 papers were eligible, 6 of them supporting and 6 others undermining the use of telemedicine for improving heart failure readmission. In general terms, those studies not supporting the use of telemedicine were multicentre, publicly funded, with large amount of participants, and long duration. The patients had also better rates of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blocker and beta-blockers, and telemonitoring and automatic transmission of vital signs were less utilized, in comparison with the studies in which telemedicine use was supported. The analysis of the environment, intensity, content of interventions, method of communication, quality of the underlying model of care and the ability, capability, and interest from health workers can help us to envisage probabilities of success of telemedicine use.Conclusions: A realist lens may aid to understand whom and in which circumstances the use of telemedicine can add any substantial value to traditional models of care. Wider outcome criteria beyond major adverse cardiovascular events, for example, cost efficacy, should also be considered as appropriate for effecting guidelines on care delivery when robust prognostic therapeutics already exist.
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