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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Anneli)

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1.
  • Callaghan, Terry V., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment. - : Springer. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 40:6, s. 705-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in sub-arctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.
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2.
  • Dahlman, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • A unique role of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 among chemokines in adipose tissue of obese subjects
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 90:10, s. 5834-5840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue may contribute to insulin resistance in obesity. However, the roles of individual inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue are poorly understood. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine which inflammation markers are most overexpressed at the gene level in adipose tissue in human obesity and how this relates to corresponding protein secretion. Design: We examined gene expression profiles in 17 lean and 20 obese subjects. The secretory pattern of relevant corresponding proteins was examined in human sc adipose tissue or isolated fat cells in vitro and in vivo in several obese or lean cohorts. Results: In ranking gene expression, defined pathways associated with obesity and immune and defense responses scored high. Among seven markedly overexpressed chemokines, only monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) was released from adipose tissue and isolated fat cells in vitro. In obesity, the secretion and expression of MCP1 in adipose tissue pieces were more than 6- and 2-fold increased, respectively, but there was no change in circulating MCP1 levels. There was no net release of MCP1, but there was a net release of leptin, in vivo from adipose tissue into the circulation. Conclusions: Obesity is associated with the increased expression of several chemokine genes in adipose tissue. However, only MCP1 is secreted into the extracellular space, where it primarily acts as a local factor, because little or no spillover into the circulation occurs. MCP1 influences the function of adipocytes, is a recruitment factor for macrophages, and may be a crucial link among chemokines between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.
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4.
  • Gidlöf, Andreas C., et al. (författare)
  • Increased retinoid signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells by proinflammatory cytokines
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC. - 0006-291X .- 1090-2104. ; 286:2, s. 336-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retinoids have been shown to modulate inflammation and the immune response in many cell types including macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. However, present knowledge of whether inflammatory mediators modulate vitamin A status in these cells is limited. To identify the role of inflammation on retinoid metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells, the cells were exposed to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and lipopolysaccharides. Without stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines, vascular smooth muscle cells expressed retinol dehydrogenases-2 and 5 mRNA detected by RT-PCR. Stimulation with the combination of cytokines induced a substantial increase of retinol dehydrogenase-5 mRNA. This was associated with increased production of ligands for retinoic acid receptors, when assayed in a retinoic acid receptor-dependent luciferase reporter system. Our results demonstrate that inflammatory mediators activate the retinoid metabolic pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells, which potentially may modulate the inflammatory response in the vascular wall.
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5.
  • Olsson, Annakarin, et al. (författare)
  • A scoping review of complexity science in nursing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. - 0309-2402 .- 1365-2648. ; 76:8, s. 1961-1976
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Aim To describe how complexity science has been integrated into nursing.Design: A scoping review. Data source/review method Academic Search Elite, Scopus, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed and Web of Science were searched November 2016, updated in October 2017 and January 2020. The working process included: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, synthesizing and presentation. Results Four categories were found in the included 89 articles: 1) how complexity science is integrated into the nursing literature in relation to nursing education and teaching; 2) patients? symptoms, illness outcome and safety as characteristics of complexity science in nursing; 3) that leaders and managers should see organizations as complex and adaptive systems, rather than as linear machines; and 4) the need for a novel approach to studying complex phenomena such as healthcare organizations. Lastly, the literature explains how complexity science has been incorporated into the discourse in nursing and its development.Conclusion: The review provided strong support for use in complexity science in the contemporary nursing literature. Complexity science is also highly applicable and relevant to clinical nursing practice and nursing management from an organizational perspective. The application of complexity science as a tool in the analysis of complex nursing systems could improve our understanding of effective interactions among patients, families, physicians and hospital and skilled nursing facility staff as well as of education.Impact: Understanding complexity science in relation to the key role of nurses in the healthcare environment can improve nursing work and nursing theory development. The use of complexity science provides nurses with a language that liberates them from the reductionist view on nursing education, practice and management.
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6.
  • Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla, et al. (författare)
  • Imatinib activity in vitro in tumor cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase and blast crisis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - 0959-4973 .- 1473-5741. ; 17:6, s. 631-639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using the non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay in drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. In nine samples (six chronic phase, three blast crisis), the drug sensitivities in tumor cells from blood versus from bone marrow and fresh tumor cells versus cryopreserved were compared. In 26 samples obtained in chronic phase (pretreatment), in six samples from patients in blast crisis and in the K 562 cell line, the activity of imatinib alone and in combination with cytarabine, vincristine, daunorubicin, interferon, arsenic trioxide and homoharringtonine was evaluated. All chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase samples were sensitive to imatinib, with a mean IC50 at 10.3 mumol/l. The chronic myeloid leukemia samples from blast crisis (n=6) were significantly more sensitive to imatinib than the samples from chronic phase (n=26) (P<0.05), with an IC50 mean at 0.4 mumol/l. In blast crisis samples, significant positive interaction effects were observed between imatinib and all other tested drugs except for interferon. In chronic phase samples, interferon, daunorubicin and arsenic trioxide were the drugs with the highest frequency of positive interactions with imatinib (P<0.05). We conclude that the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay may be a useful method for drug sensitivity testing in chronic myeloid leukemia patient samples from both chronic phase and blast crisis, and that testing primary tumor cells may have advantages over cell line studies. Imatinib shows a higher in vitro activity and more positive drug interactions in cells from blast crisis than chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Combinations between imatinib and interferon, daunorubicin and arsenic trioxide may be interesting for future clinical trials in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase.
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8.
  • Sirsjö, Allan, et al. (författare)
  • Retinoic Acid Inhibits Nitric Oxide Synthase-2 Expression through the Retinoic Acid Receptor-alpha
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC. - 0006-291X .- 1090-2104. ; 270:3, s. 846-851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retinoids are multipotent modulators of cellular functions and suppress cytokine-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in several cell types. We have explored the mechanisms by which retinoic acid (RA) regulates NO production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which express NOS2 in response to proinflammatory cytokines. RA inhibited interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced NOS2 mRNA expression and NO production. These effects were attenuated by the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist CD3106, indicating that they were mediated through retinoic acid receptors (RARs). The synthetic retinoid agonists CD336 (which specifically binds RARalpha) and CD367 (which binds all RARs) but not agonists specific for RARbeta, RARgamma, or RXRs reduced IL-1beta-induced NOS2 expression and NO production. When transfecting VSMC with a 1570-bp NOS2 promoter fragment fused to a luciferase reporter gene, the NOS2 promoter activity was inhibited by RA. These results indicate that retinoids modulate NO production in VSMC via RARalpha, which inhibits the transcription of the NOS2 gene.
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9.
  • Sparv, David, et al. (författare)
  • The Analgesic Effect of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction : A Substudy of the DETO2X-AMI Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. - : Elsevier. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 11:16, s. 1590-1597
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: In this substudy of the DETO2X-AMI (An Efficacy and Outcome Study of Supplemental Oxygen Treatment in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction) trial, the authors aimed to assess the analgesic effect of moderate-flow oxygen supplementation in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to study the effect of oxygen supplementation on the use of opiates and sedatives during PCI. Background: Routine oxygen in normoxemic patients with AMI does not provide clinical benefit. However, oxygen may relieve ischemic pain. Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to oxygen or ambient air according to the main study protocol. After PCI, peak level of pain during PCI was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale. The total amount of opiates and sedatives was reported. Results: A total of 622 patients were enrolled: 330 in the oxygen group and 292 in the ambient air group. There was no significant difference in peak level of pain (oxygen 4.0 [1.0 to 6.0] vs. air 3.0 [0.6 to 6.0]; p = 0.37), use of opiates (mg) (oxygen 0.0 [0.0 to 3.0] vs. air 0.0 [0.0 to 3.0]; p = 0.31), or use of sedatives between the groups (median [interquartile range]) (oxygen 2.5 [0.0 to 2.5] vs. air 2.5 [0.0 to 2.5]; p = 0.74). Conclusions: In the present study, the authors did not find any analgesic effect of routine oxygen as compared with ambient air, and no differences in the use of sedatives and opiates during PCI. Our results indicate that moderate-flow oxygen supplementation does not relieve pain in normoxemic patients with suspected AMI undergoing treatment with PCI and should thus not be used for this purpose.
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10.
  • Spikol, Daniel (creator_code:cre_t, creator_code:res_t)
  • Forskarnas galleri #5 : People have the power: IOTAP on exhibit
  • 2018
  • Konstnärligt arbeteabstract
    • Överallt samlar sensorer data som analyseras för att räkna ut hur man sparar energi, hur mycket insulin som ska injiceras, var den närmaste hyrbilen finns, hur många människor som fortfarande är kvar inne i en brinnande byggnad... Denna snabba spridning av teknik kallas för Sakernas Internet, eller IoT. Människor har makten, eller har vi verkligen det? Hur mycket värderar vi vår integritet? Vilka internetanslutna gadgets hjälper oss att leva ett hälsosamt och hållbart liv - och vilka prylar kommer bara att öka vår stressnivå? När blir användningen missbruk? Utställningen undersöker hur IoT påverkar människor, samhälle och industri. Forskningsprojekt i utställningen: Emergent Configuration for IoT Systems (ECOS+), Smart energy management and security (SEMS), Fair Data, Walk the ward, Dynamic Intelligent Sensor-Intensive Systems (DISS), PELARS-projektet och Busrunner presenteras i "IOTAP-labbet"
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