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1.
  • Abreha, Kibrom Berhe, et al. (författare)
  • Understanding the Sorghum–Colletotrichum sublineola interactions for enhanced host resistance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science. - : Frontiers Media. - 1664-462X. ; 12
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Improving sorghum resistance is a sustainable method to reduce yield losses due to anthracnose, a devastating disease caused by Colletotrichum sublineola. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of sorghum–C. sublineola interactions would help identify biomarkers for rapid and efficient identification of novel sources for host-plant resistance improvement, understanding the pathogen virulence, and facilitating resistance breeding. Despite concerted efforts to identify resistance sources, the knowledge about sorghum–anthracnose interactions remains scanty. Hence, in this review, we presented an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanisms of sorghum-C. sublineola molecular interactions, sources of resistance for sorghum breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL), and major (R-) resistance gene sequences as well as defense-related genes associated with anthracnose resistance. We summarized current knowledge about C. sublineola populations and its virulence. Illustration of the sorghum-C. sublineola interaction model based on the current understanding is also provided. We highlighted the importance of genomic resources of both organisms for integrated omics research to unravel the key molecular components underpinning compatible and incompatible sorghum–anthracnose interactions. Furthermore, sorghum-breeding strategy employing rapid sorghum germplasm screening, systems biology, and molecular tools is presented.
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2.
  • Batte, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Crossbreeding East African Highland Bananas: Lessons Learnt Relevant to the Botany of the Crop After 21 Years of Genetic Enhancement
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science. - : Frontiers Media. - 1664-462X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • East African highland bananas (EAHB) were regarded as sterile. Their screening for female fertility with "Calcutta 4" as male parent revealed that 37 EAHB were fertile. This was the foundation for the establishment of the EAHB crossbreeding programs by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) in Uganda in the mid-1990s. The aim of this study was to assess the progress and efficiency of the EAHB breeding program at IITA, Sendusu in Uganda. Data on pollinations, seeds generated and germinated, plus hybrids selected between 1995 and 2015 were analyzed. Pollination success and seed germination percentages for different cross combinations were calculated. The month of pollination did not result in significantly different (P = 0.501) pollination success. Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis accession 250 had the highest pollination success (66.8%), followed by the cultivar "Rose" (66.6%) among the diploid males. Twenty-five EAHB out of 41 studied for female fertility produced up to 305 seeds per pollinated bunch, and were therefore deemed fertile. The percentage of seed germination varied among crosses: 26% for 2x x 4x, 23% for 2x x 2x, 11% for 3x x 2x, and 7% for 4x x 2x. Twenty-seven NARITA hybrids (mostly secondary triploids ensuing from the 4x x 2x) were selected for further evaluation in the East African region. One so far -"NARITA 7"- was officially released to farmers in Uganda. Although pollination of EAHB can be conducted throughout the year, the seed set and germination is low. Thus, further research on pollination conditions and optimization of embryo culture protocols should be done to boost seed set and embryo germination, respectively. More research in floral biology and seed germination as well as other breeding strategies are required to increase the efficiency of the EAHB breeding program.
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3.
  • Batte, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Heterobeltiosis in banana and genetic gains through crossbreeding
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings. ; 36
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, is the superiority of the hybrid for a certain trait over the mean of its two parents. Heterobeltiosis is a form of heterosis where the hybrid is superior to its best parent. Banana breeding is a tedious, time-consuming process, taking up to two decades to develop a hybrid. Understanding heterosis in banana breeding will contribute to selecting right breeding materials for further crossing, thus increasing banana breeding efficiency. Here we document heterobeltiosis by using the recently bred NARITA ‘Matooke’ hybrids and their ancestors. NARITA hybrids, their parents (4x and 2x), grandparents (3x and 2x), and local 3x ‘Matooke’ cultivar checks were planted in a rectangular lattice design with two replications. Yield and other agronomic data were collected at flowering and harvest. The NARITAs were compared with their 3x ‘Matooke’ grandmothers. Heterobeltiosis on bunch weight was calculated with the data of 3 cycles. All the NARITAs showed heterobeltiosis for bunch weight. NARITA 17 had the highest grandparent heterobeltiosis (ca. 250%). Genetic gains due to crossbreeding were determined for fruit yield considering three generations: matooke cultigen (C0), primary tetraploid hybrids (C1) and secondary tetraploid hybrids (C2). The average genetic gain (from C0 to C2) rates for bunch weight (kg) and yield potential (t ha−1 year−1) were 1.4% and 1.3% per year, respectively.
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4.
  • Batte, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Significant progressive heterobeltiosis in banana crossbreeding
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Plant Biology. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2229. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundHeterobeltiosis is the phenomenon when the hybrid's performance is superior to its best performing parent. Banana (Musa spp. AAA) breeding is a tedious, time-consuming process, taking up to two decades to develop a consumer acceptable hybrid. Exploiting heterobeltiosis in banana breeding will help to select breeding material with high complementarity, thus increasing banana breeding efficiency. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and document the level of heterobeltiosis of bunch weight and plant stature in the East African highland bananas, in order to identify potential parents that can be used to produce offspring with desired bunch weight and stature after a few crosses.ResultsThis research found significant progressive heterobeltiosis in cross-bred 'Matooke' (highland cooking) banana hybrids, also known as NARITAs, when grown together across years with their parents and grandparents in Uganda. Most (all except 4) NARITAs exhibited positive heterobeltiosis for bunch weight, whereas slightly more than half of them had negative heterobeltiosis for stature. The secondary triploid NARITA 17 had the highest heterobeltiosis for bunch weight: 249% versus its 'Matooke' grandparent and 136% against its primary tetraploid parent. Broad sense heritability (across three cropping cycles) for yield potential and bunch weight were high (0.84 and 0.76 respectively), while that of plant stature was very low (0.0035). There was a positive significant correlation (P < 0.05) between grandparent heterobeltiosis for bunch weight and genetic distance between parents (r=0.39, P=0.036), bunch weight (r=0.7, P<0.001), plant stature (r=0.38, P=0.033) and yield potential (r=0.59, P<0.001). Grandparent heterobeltiosis for plant stature was significantly, but negatively, correlated to the genetic distance between parents (r=-0.6, P<0.001).ConclusionsSuch significant heterobeltiosis exhibited for bunch weight is to our knowledge the largest among main food crops. Since bananas are vegetatively propagated, the effect of heterobeltiosis is easily fixed in the hybrids and will not be lost over time after the release and further commercialization of these hybrids.
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5.
  • Batte, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Suitability of existing Musa morphological descriptors to characterize East African highland 'matooke' bananas
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0925-9864 .- 1573-5109. ; 65, s. 645-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Morphological traits are commonly used for characterizing plant genetic resources. Germplasm characterization should be based on distinctly identifiable, stable and heritable traits that are expressed consistently and are easy to distinguish by the human eye. Characterization and documentation of a representative sample of East African highland bananas (Lujugira-Mutika subgroup) was carried out following an internationally accepted standard protocol for bananas. Eleven cultivars were characterized using an existing set of minimum descriptors (31 qualitative and quantitative traits) with the aim of determining stable descriptors and the ability of these descriptors to distinguish among East African highland banana cultivars. There was variation in stability of these descriptors within cultivars and across the 11 cultivars. Only 10 (32%) out of 31 descriptors studied were stable in the 11 cultivars. However, they had similar scores and therefore are not suitable to distinguish between cultivars within this group. Nonetheless, these 10 descriptors may be useful for distinguishing the East African highland bananas as a group from other groups of bananas. A few descriptors were unique to the cultivar 'Tereza' and may be used to distinguish this cultivar from other 'matooke' cultivars. None of the quantitative descriptors were stable.
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6.
  • Batte, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Traits that define yield and genetic gain in East African highland banana breeding
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Euphytica. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0014-2336 .- 1573-5060. ; 217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA group) are an important staple in the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Their production has declined due to pests and diseases. Breeding for host plant resistance is a sustainable option for addressing this challenge. Understanding the relationships between growth parameters and bunch weight (i.e., yield) is crucial to guide breeding efforts for this crop. We investigated cause-effect relationships, through path analysis, in bunch weight of East African highland banana derived hybrids, their parents and grandparents. These family structures were planted in a 7 × 8 rectangular lattice design, replicated twice. Genetic gains for bunch weight (kg plant−1) and yield potential (t ha−1 year−1) were estimated. Significant increases of bunch weight and yield potential were noted from the landrace triploid germplasm, their derived primary tetraploid hybrids and secondary triploid bred-germplasm. Path analysis revealed that fruit length, circumference and number, number of hands and plant cycle number had a direct positive effect on the bunch weight. Days to fruit filling, days to maturity and index of non-spotted leaves had indirect effects on bunch weight. The average genetic gains for bunch weight and yield potential were 1.4% and 1.3% per year, respectively. This is the first report about genetic gains in banana breeding. Our findings may be useful for assessing progress and directing future breeding efforts in banana breeding.
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7.
  • Campbell, Bruce M., et al. (författare)
  • Agriculture production as a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology & Society. - : Resilience Alliance. - 1708-3087. ; 22:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or safe limits: land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction of novel entities. Two planetary boundaries have been fully transgressed, i.e., are at high risk, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, and agriculture has been the major driver of the transgression. Three are in a zone of uncertainty i.e., at increasing risk, with agriculture the major driver of two of those, land-system change and freshwater use, and a significant contributor to the third, climate change. Agriculture is also a significant or major contributor to change for many of those planetary boundaries still in the safe zone. To reduce the role of agriculture in transgressing planetary boundaries, many interventions will be needed, including those in broader food systems.
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8.
  • Chawade, Aakash, et al. (författare)
  • A transnational and holistic breeding approach is needed for sustainable wheat production in the Baltic Sea region
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physiologia Plantarum. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0031-9317 .- 1399-3054. ; 164, s. 442-451
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate.
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9.
  • Chawade, Aakash, et al. (författare)
  • High-Throughput Field-Phenotyping Tools for Plant Breeding and Precision Agriculture
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agronomy. - : MDPI. - 2073-4395. ; 9
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-throughput field phenotyping has garnered major attention in recent years leading to the development of several new protocols for recording various plant traits of interest. Phenotyping of plants for breeding and for precision agriculture have different requirements due to different sizes of the plots and fields, differing purposes and the urgency of the action required after phenotyping. While in plant breeding phenotyping is done on several thousand small plots mainly to evaluate them for various traits, in plant cultivation, phenotyping is done in large fields to detect the occurrence of plant stresses and weeds at an early stage. The aim of this review is to highlight how various high-throughput phenotyping methods are used for plant breeding and farming and the key differences in the applications of such methods. Thus, various techniques for plant phenotyping are presented together with applications of these techniques for breeding and cultivation. Several examples from the literature using these techniques are summarized and the key technical aspects are highlighted.
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10.
  • Chawade, Aakash, et al. (författare)
  • RNA Interference and CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing for Crop Improvement: Paradigm Shift towards Sustainable Agriculture
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Plants. - : MDPI. - 2223-7747. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the rapid population growth, there is an urgent need for innovative crop improvement approaches to meet the increasing demand for food. Classical crop improvement approaches involve, however, a backbreaking process that cannot equipoise with increasing crop demand. RNA-based approaches i.e., RNAi-mediated gene regulation and the site-specific nuclease-based CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing has made advances in the efficient targeted modification in many crops for the higher yield and resistance to diseases and different stresses. In functional genomics, RNA interference (RNAi) is a propitious gene regulatory approach that plays a significant role in crop improvement by permitting the downregulation of gene expression by small molecules of interfering RNA without affecting the expression of other genes. Gene editing technologies viz. the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have appeared prominently as a powerful tool for precise targeted modification of nearly all crops’ genome sequences to generate variation and accelerate breeding efforts. In this regard, the review highlights the diverse roles and applications of RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 system as powerful technologies to improve agronomically important plants to enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to environmental stress (biotic or abiotic). Ultimately, these technologies can prove to be important in view of global food security and sustainable agriculture.
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