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  • Snir, O., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple antibody reactivities to citrullinated antigens in sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis : association with HLA-DRB1 alleles
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 68:5, s. 736-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) are present in most patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA), and associate with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles. Objective: To investigate reactivities of anti-CCP to various citrullinated proteins/peptides, which represent potential autoantigens in RA, and to examine the relationship between such antibodies, and their association with genetic variants within HLA-DRB1 SE alleles. Methods: Serum samples from 291 patients with established RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Sera were first analysed for presence of anti-CCP antibodies and further for IgG and IgA antibodies towards candidate autoantigens in both their native and citrullinated form including: fibrinogen, alpha-enolase peptide-1 and the C1-epitope of type II collagen (C1(III)). Antibody specificity was confirmed by cross-reactivity tests. HLA-DR genotyping was performed. Results: 72% of patients with RA were anti-CCP positive. Among the candidate autoantigens examined, IgG antibodies to citrullinated fibrinogen were found in 66% of patients' sera and in 41% for both citrullinated alpha-enolase peptide-1 and citrullinated C1(III). These antibodies were mainly seen in the anti-CCP-positive patient group; they were specific for their respective antigen and displayed limited cross reactivity. IgA responses were also detected, but less frequently than IgG. Anti-CCP and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies were associated with HLA-DRB1*04 rather than with HLA-DRB1*01 alleles. Conclusions: Antibodies directed against several citrullinated antigens are present in CCP-positive RA, with many patients displaying multireactivity. All specific reactivities were primarily associated with the HLA-DRB1*04 alleles, suggesting common pathways of anti-citrulline immunity.
  • Wang, C., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of IKBKE and IFIH1 gene variants to SLE susceptibility
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 14:4, s. 217-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The type I interferon system genes IKBKE and IFIH1 are associated with the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To identify the sequence variants that are able to account for the disease association, we resequenced the genes IKBKE and IFIH1. Eighty-six single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with potentially functional effect or differences in allele frequencies between patients and controls determined by sequencing were further genotyped in 1140 SLE patients and 2060 controls. In addition, 108 imputed sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1 were included in the association analysis. Ten IKBKE SNVs and three IFIH1 SNVs were associated with SLE. The SNVs rs1539241 and rs12142086 tagged two independent association signals in IKBKE, and the haplotype carrying their risk alleles showed an odds ratio of 1.68 (P-value = 1.0 x 10(-5)). The risk allele of rs12142086 affects the binding of splicing factor 1 in vitro and could thus influence its transcriptional regulatory function. Two independent association signals were also detected in IFIH1, which were tagged by a low-frequency SNV rs78456138 and a missense SNV rs3747517. Their joint effect is protective against SLE (odds ratio = 0.56; P-value = 6.6 x 10(-3)). In conclusion, we have identified new SLE-associated sequence variants in IKBKE and IFIH1, and proposed functional hypotheses for the association signals.
  • Albrecht, Inka, et al. (författare)
  • Development of autoantibodies against muscle-specific FHL1 in severe inflammatory myopathies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 125:12, s. 4612-4624
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations of the gene encoding four-and-a-half LIM domain 1 (FHL1) are the causative factor of several X-linked hereditary myopathies that are collectively termed FHL1-related myopathies. These disorders are characterized by severe muscle dysfunction and damage. Here, we have shown that patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) develop autoimmunity to FHL1, which is a muscle-specific protein. Anti-FHL1 autoantibodies were detected in 25% of IIM patients, while patients with other autoimmune diseases or muscular dystrophies were largely anti-FHL1 negative. Anti-FHL1 reactivity was predictive for muscle atrophy, dysphagia, pronounced muscle fiber damage, and vasculitis. FHL1 showed an altered expression pattern, with focal accumulation in the muscle fibers of autoantibody-positive patients compared with a homogeneous expression in anti-FHL1-negative patients and healthy controls. We determined that FHL1 is a target of the cytotoxic protease granzyme B, indicating that the generation of FHL1 fragments may initiate FHL1 autoimmunity. Moreover, immunization of myositis-prone mice with FHL1 aggravated muscle weakness and increased mortality, suggesting a direct link between anti-FHL1 responses and muscle damage. Together, our findings provide evidence that FHL1 may be involved in the pathogenesis not only of genetic FHL1-related myopathies but also of autoimmune IIM. Importantly, these results indicate that anti-FHL1 autoantibodies in peripheral blood have promising potential as a biomarker to identify a subset of severe IIM.
  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Novel risk genes for systemic lupus erythematosus predicted by random forest classification
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for SLE, but a large proportion of the genetic contribution to SLE still remains unexplained. To detect novel risk genes, and to predict an individual's SLE risk we designed a random forest classifier using SNP genotype data generated on the "Immunochip" from 1,160 patients with SLE and 2,711 controls. Using gene importance scores defined by the random forest classifier, we identified 15 potential novel risk genes for SLE. Of them 12 are associated with other autoimmune diseases than SLE, whereas three genes (ZNF804A, CDK1, and MANF) have not previously been associated with autoimmunity. Random forest classification also allowed prediction of patients at risk for lupus nephritis with an area under the curve of 0.94. By allele-specific gene expression analysis we detected cis-regulatory SNPs that affect the expression levels of six of the top 40 genes designed by the random forest analysis, indicating a regulatory role for the identified risk variants. The 40 top genes from the prediction were overrepresented for differential expression in B and T cells according to RNA-sequencing of samples from five healthy donors, with more frequent over-expression in B cells compared to T cells.
  • Apel, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in RUNX3 Contribute to Susceptibility to Psoriatic Arthritis, Exhibiting Further Common Ground With Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 65:5, s. 1224-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a common inflammatory joint disease distinct from other chronic arthritides and frequently accompanied by psoriasis vulgaris. In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS), we were able to identify several genetic risk factors. However, even combined with previously identified factors, the genetic contribution to disease was not fully explained. Therefore, we undertook this study to investigate further 17 loci from our GWAS that did not reach genome-wide significance levels of association in the initial analysis. Methods Twenty-one of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully genotyped in independent cohorts of 1,398 PsA patients and 6,389 controls and in a group of 964 German patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Results Association with a RUNX3 variant, rs4649038, was replicated in independent patients and controls and resulted in a combined P value of 1.40 x 108 by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.151.33). Further analyses based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) at RUNX3 refined the most significant association to an LD block located in the first intron of one isoform. Weaker evidence for association was detected in German patients with psoriasis vulgaris (P = 5.89 x 102; OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.001.28]), indicating a role in the skin manifestations of psoriasis. Conclusion Our analyses identified variants in RUNX3 as susceptibility factors for PsA. RUNX3 has already been implicated in susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis, another spondyloarthritis, although its risk allele is independent from the one for PsA. RUNX-3 is involved in CD8+ T lymphocyte differentiation and is therefore a good candidate for involvement in PsA and psoriasis vulgaris as T cellmediated diseases.
  • Baecklund, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Possible Interaction Between Cigarette Smoking and HLA-DRB1 Variation in the Risk of Follicular Lymphoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 185:8, s. 681-687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Follicular lymphoma (FL) risk is strongly associated with germline genetic variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II. Cigarette smoking has been suggested to increase FL risk, primarily among women. We hypothesized that amino acids in HLA-antigen D-related beta 1 subunit (DRB1) interact with smoking in FL risk, as shown for rheumatoid arthritis. We analyzed 373 patients with FL and 818 controls from 2 population-based case-control studies in Sweden and Denmark (1999-2003). Haplotypes in HLA-DRB1 were imputed at amino acid positions 11, 13, 28, 30, and 70-74 (shared epitope). We estimated the relative risk of FL as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for different smoking status/haplotype combinations. Interaction was defined as departure from additivity of effects and quantified by the attributable proportion (AP). Relative to never-smokers carrying no shared epitope alleles, smoking was associated with the risk of FL among all subjects (for former smokers, odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 4.41; ORcurrent = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.60, 7.92) and women (ORformer = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.37; ORcurrent = 5.63, 95% CI: 2.07, 15.3) carrying 2 shared epitope alleles but not among those carrying zero or 1 shared epitope allele. Smoking and shared epitope status interacted significantly as measured by AP (overall, AP = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.15, 1.0; for women, AP = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.005, 1.0). These results suggest a possible interaction between smoking and HLA-DRB1-associated antigen presentation in FL risk and provide a model to further unravel FL etiology.
  • Berglin, Ewa, MD, PhD, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • A combination of autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and HLA-DRB1 locus antigens is strongly associated with future onset of rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central. - 1478-6354 .- 1478-6362. ; 6:4, s. R303-R308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and rheumatoid factors (RFs) have been demonstrated to predate the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by years. A nested case–control study was performed within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease study cohort to analyse the presence of shared epitope (SE) genes, defined as HLA-DRB1*0404 or DRB1*0401, and of anti-CCP antibodies and RFs in individuals who subsequently developed RA. Patients with RA were identified from among blood donors whose samples had been collected years before the onset of symptoms. Controls matched for age, sex, and date of sampling were selected randomly from the same cohort. The SE genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers. Anti-CCP2 antibodies and RFs were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Fifty-nine individuals with RA were identified as blood donors, with a median antedating time of 2.0 years (interquartile range 0.9–3.9 years) before presenting with symptoms of RA. The sensitivity for SE as a diagnostic indicator for RA was 60% and the specificity was 64%. The corresponding figures for anti-CCP antibodies were 37% and 98%, and for RFs, 17–42% and 94%, respectively. In a logistic regression analysis, SE (odds ratio [OR] = 2.35), anti-CCP antibodies (OR = 15.9), and IgA-RF (OR = 6.8) significantly predicted RA. In a combination model analysis, anti-CCP antibodies combined with SE had the highest OR (66.8, 95% confidence interval 8.3–539.4) in predicting RA, compared with anti-CCP antibodies without SE (OR = 25.01, 95% confidence interval 2.8–222.2) or SE without anti-CCP antibodies (OR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9–4.2). This study showed that the presence of anti-CCP antibodies together with SE gene carriage is associated with a very high relative risk for future development of RA.
  • Coenen, Marieke J H, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants in Toll-Like Receptors Are Not Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility or Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Treatment Outcome
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 5:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several studies point to a role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated if genetic variants in TLR genes are associated with RA and response to tumour necrosis factor blocking (anti-TNF) medication. Methodology and Principal Findings: 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven TLR genes were genotyped in a Dutch cohort consisting of 378 RA patients and 294 controls. Significantly associated variants were investigated in replication cohorts from The Netherlands, United Kingdom and Sweden (2877 RA patients and 2025 controls). 182 of the Dutch patients were treated with anti-TNF medication. Using these patients and a replication cohort (269 Swedish patients) we analysed if genetic variants in TLR genes were associated with anti-TNF outcome. In the discovery phase of the study we found a significant association of SNPs rs2072493 in TLR5 and rs3853839 in TLR7 with RA disease susceptibility. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts did not confirm these findings. SNP rs2072493 in TLR5 was associated with anti-TNF outcome in the Dutch but not in the Swedish population. Conclusion: We conclude that genetic variants in TLRs do not play a major role in susceptibility for developing RA nor in anti-TNF treatment outcome in a Caucasian population.
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