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Sökning: WFRF:(Palmer Julie)

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1.
  • Nichols, Hazel B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast Cancer Risk After Recent Childbirth : A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - : American College of Physicians. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 170:1, s. 22-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated.Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth.Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies.Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group.Participants: Women younger than 55 years.Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression.Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns.Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited.Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women.Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.
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2.
  • Nichols, Hazel B., et al. (författare)
  • The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration : A Pooling Project of Studies Participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 26:9, s. 1360-1369
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individuallevel data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations.
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3.
  • Schoemaker, Minouk J., et al. (författare)
  • Association of body mass index and age With subsequent breast cancer risk in premenopausal women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Assocation. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as wei ght in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1,1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1.2013, through December 31, 2017.EXPOSURES Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34,35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.RESULTS Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m(2) [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI >= 35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
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4.
  • Zhang, Xuehong, et al. (författare)
  • Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status : a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 95:3, s. 713-725
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic studies examining associations between carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are limited. Objective: We investigated these associations in a pooled analysis of 18 cohort studies. Design: Of 1,028,438 participants followed for a maximum follow-up of 26 y across studies, 33,380 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Study-specific RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression and then pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: alpha-Carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs of the comparison between the highest and lowest quintiles): alpha-carotene (0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), beta-carotene (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93), and lutein/zeaxanthin (0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). These variables were not inversely associated with the risk of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs for the same comparison): a-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09), beta-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10), and lutein/zeaxanthin (1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). Although the pooled RRs for quintile 5 for beta-cryptoxanthin were not significant, inverse trends were observed for ER- and ER+ breast cancer (P-trend <= 0.05). Nonsignificant associations were observed for lycopene intake. The associations were largely not appreciably modified by several breast cancer risk factors. Nonsignificant associations were observed for PR-positive and PR-negative breast cancer. Conclusions: Intakes of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with risk of ER-, but not ER+, breast cancer. However, the results need to be interpreted with caution because it is unclear whether the observed association is real or due to other constituents in the same food sources. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:713-25.
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5.
  • Haiman, Christopher A., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:12, s. 61-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 x 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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6.
  • Jung, Seungyoun, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer by Hormone Receptor Status
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B1. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 105:3, s. 219-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptornegative (ER) breast cancer has few known or modifiable risk factors. Because ER tumors account for only 15% to 20% of breast cancers, large pooled analyses are necessary to evaluate precisely the suspected inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of ER breast cancer. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAmong 993 466 women followed for 11 to 20 years in 20 cohort studies, we documented 19 869 estrogen receptor positive (ER) and 4821 ER breast cancers. We calculated study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and then combined them using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTotal fruit and vegetable intake was statistically significantly inversely associated with risk of ER breast cancer but not with risk of breast cancer overall or of ER tumors. The inverse association for ER tumors was observed primarily for vegetable consumption. The pooled relative risks comparing the highest vs lowest quintile of total vegetable consumption were 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.90) for ER breast cancer and 1.04 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.11) for ER breast cancer (Pcommon-effects by ER status andlt; .001). Total fruit consumption was non-statistically significantly associated with risk of ER breast cancer (pooled multivariable RR comparing the highest vs lowest quintile 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe observed no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer. However, vegetable consumption was inversely associated with risk of ER breast cancer in our large pooled analyses.
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7.
  • Palmer, Nicholette D, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - San Francisco : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:1, s. e29202-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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8.
  • Siddiq, Afshan, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 21:24, s. 5373-5384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P 1 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR 1.16; P 1.1 10(8)) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR 1.08, P 1.3 10(6)) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR 1.01, P 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR 1.12; P 1.1 10(9)), and with both ER-positive (OR 1.09; P 1.5 10(5)) and ER-negative (OR 1.16, P 2.5 10(7)) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
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9.
  • Sluijs, Ivonne, et al. (författare)
  • A Mendelian randomization study of circulating uric acid and type 2 diabetes.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 64:8, s. 3028-3036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to investigate the causal effect of circulating uric acid concentrations on type 2 diabetes risk. A Mendelian randomization study was performed using a genetic score with 24 uric acid associated loci. We used data of the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study, comprising 24,265 individuals of European ancestry from eight European countries. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10 (4) years, 10,576 verified incident type 2 diabetes cases were ascertained. Higher uric acid associated with higher diabetes risk following adjustment for confounders, with a HR of 1.20 (95%CI: 1.11,1.30) per 59.48 µmol/L (1 mg/dL) uric acid. The genetic score raised uric acid by 17 µmol/L (95%CI: 15,18) per SD increase, and explained 4% of uric acid variation. Using the genetic score to estimate the unconfounded effect found that a 59.48 µmol/L higher uric acid concentration did not have a causal effect on diabetes (HR 1.01, 95%CI: 0.87,1.16). Including data from DIAGRAM consortium, increasing our dataset to 41,508 diabetes cases, the summary OR estimate was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.92, 1.06). In conclusion, our study does not support a causal effect of circulating uric acid on diabetes risk. Uric acid lowering therapies may therefore not be beneficial in reducing diabetes risk.
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10.
  • Surendran, Praveen, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 52:12, s. 1314-1332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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