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Sökning: WFRF:(Palotie Aarno)

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  • Strausz, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic analysis of obstructive sleep apnoea discovers a strong association with cardiometabolic health
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936. ; 57:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is currently limited understanding of the genetic aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with OSA risk, and to test if OSA and its comorbidities share a common genetic background. We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study of OSA using the FinnGen study (217 955 individuals) with 16 761 OSA patients identified using nationwide health registries. We estimated 0.08 (95% CI heritability and identified five loci associated with OSA (p<5.0×10-8): rs4837016 near GAPVD1 (GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1), rs10928560 near CXCR4 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4), rs185932673 near CAMK1D (calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase ID) and rs9937053 near FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein; a variant previously associated with body mass index (BMI)). In a BMI-adjusted analysis, an association was observed for rs10507084 near RMST/NEDD1 (rhabdomyosarcoma 2 associated transcript/NEDD1 γ-tubulin ring complex targeting factor). We found high genetic correlations between OSA and BMI (rg=0.72 (95% CI 0.62-0.83)), and with comorbidities including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, hypothyroidism, asthma and inflammatory rheumatic disease (rg>0.30). The polygenic risk score for BMI showed 1.98-fold increased OSA risk between the highest and the lowest quintile, and Mendelian randomisation supported a causal relationship between BMI and OSA. Our findings support the causal link between obesity and OSA, and the joint genetic basis between OSA and comorbidities.
  • Strausz, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea and the risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes : A longitudinal population-based study in Finland
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To evaluate if obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) modifies the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications in a gender-specific fashion. Design and setting A longitudinal population-based study with up to 25-year follow-up data on 36 963 individuals (>500 000 person years) from three population-based cohorts: the FINRISK study, the Health 2000 Cohort Study and the Botnia Study. Main outcome measures Incident coronary heart disease, diabetic kidney disease, T2D and all-cause mortality from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish National Causes-of-Death Register. Results After adjustments for age, sex, region, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol, current cigarette smoking, body mass index, hypertension, T2D baseline and family history of stroke or myocardial infarction, OSA increased the risk for coronary heart disease (HR=1.36, p=0.0014, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.64), particularly in women (HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.07, p=0.0012). T2D clustered with OSA independently of obesity (HR=1.48, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.73, p=9.11× 10 7). The risk of diabetic kidney disease increased 1.75-fold in patients with OSA (95% CI 1.13 to 2.71, p=0.013). OSA increased the risk for coronary heart disease similarly among patients with T2D and in general population (HR=1.36). All-cause mortality was increased by OSA in diabetic individuals (HR=1.35, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.71, p=0.016). Conclusion OSA is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, T2D and diabetic kidney disease. This effect is more pronounced even in women, who until now have received less attention in diagnosis and treatment of OSA than men.
  • Bao, Erik L, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 586:7831, s. 769-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:5, s. 501-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
  • Bolton, Jennifer L, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.
  • Borén, Jan, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of pnpla3 i148m on hepatic lipid and very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in humans.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 1365-2796. ; 291:2, s. 218-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PNPLA3-148M variant is associated with liver steatosis but its influence on metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins remains unclear. Here we investigated the kinetics of large, triglyceride-rich VLDL1 and smaller VLDL2 in homozygotes for the PNPLA3-148M variant.The kinetics of apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL subfractions was analysed in nine subjects homozygous for PNPLA3-148M and nine subjects homozygous for PNPLA3-148I (controls). Liver fat was >3-fold higher in the 148M subjects. Production rates for apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL1 did not differ significantly between the two groups. Likewise, production rates for VLDL2 -apoB100 and -triglyceride, and fractional clearance rates for both apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL1 and VLDL2 , were not significantly different.Despite the higher liver fat content in PNPLA3-148M homozygotes, there was no increase in VLDL production. Equally, VLDL production was maintained at normal levels despite the putative impairment in cytosolic lipid hydrolysis in these subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Borén, Jan, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of TM6SF2 E167K on hepatic lipid and very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in humans.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JCI insight. - 2379-3708. ; 5:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation. The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K genetic variant associates with NAFLD and with reduced plasma triglyceride levels in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We hypothesized that TM6SF2 E167K affects hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, and studied the kinetics of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) and triglyceride metabolism in VLDL in homozygous subjects. In 10 homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers and 10 matched controls, we employed stable-isotope tracer and compartmental modeling techniques to determine apoB100 and triglyceride kinetics in the two major VLDL subfractions: large triglyceride-rich VLDL1 and smaller, less triglyceride-rich VLDL2. VLDL1-apoB100 production was markedly reduced in homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers compared to controls. Likewise, VLDL1-triglyceride production was 35% lower in the TM6SF2 E167K carriers. In contrast, the direct production rates for VLDL2-apoB100 and triglyceride were not different between carriers and controls. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant was linked to a specific reduction in hepatic secretion of large triglyceride-rich VLDL1. The impaired secretion of VLDL1 explains the reduced plasma triglyceride concentration, and provides a basis for understanding the lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant.Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT04209816.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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