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Sökning: WFRF:(Pekkanen Juha)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
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  • Cesaroni, Giulia, et al. (författare)
  • Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events : prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - 1756-1833. ; 348, s. f7412-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 mu m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 mu m (PMcoarse), and <10 mu m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 mu g/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 mu g/m(3) increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 mu g/m(3) for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5) and below 40 mu g/m(3) for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values.
  • Loth, Daan W, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46, s. 669-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
  • Paternoster, Lavinia, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a commonly occurring chronic skin disease with high heritability. Apart from filaggrin (FLG), the genes influencing atopic dermatitis are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 5,606 affected individuals and 20,565 controls from 16 population-based cohorts and then examined the ten most strongly associated new susceptibility loci in an additional 5,419 affected individuals and 19,833 controls from 14 studies. Three SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the discovery and replication cohorts combined, including rs479844 upstream of OVOL1 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.88, P = 1.1 × 10(-13)) and rs2164983 near ACTL9 (OR = 1.16, P = 7.1 × 10(-9)), both of which are near genes that have been implicated in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, as well as rs2897442 in KIF3A within the cytokine cluster at 5q31.1 (OR = 1.11, P = 3.8 × 10(-8)). We also replicated association with the FLG locus and with two recently identified association signals at 11q13.5 (rs7927894; P = 0.008) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620; P = 0.002). Our results underline the importance of both epidermal barrier function and immune dysregulation in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis.
  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
  • Valkonen, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial characteristics in homes of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults in the ECRHS cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 28:1, s. 16-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from 7 European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analyzed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa. We observed trends for protective associations of higher levels of mostly bacterial markers. Increased levels of muramic acid, a cell wall component predominant in Gram-positive bacteria, tended to be inversely associated with asthma (OR's for different quartiles: II 0.71 [0.39-1.30], III 0.44 [0.23-0.82], and IV 0.60 [0.31-1.18] P for trend .07) and with asthma score (P for trend .06) and with atopy (P for trend .02). These associations were more pronounced in northern Europe. This study among adults across Europe supports a potential protective effect of Gram-positive bacteria in mattress dust and points out that this may be more pronounced in areas where microbial exposure levels are generally lower.
  • Brunekreef, Bert, et al. (författare)
  • Clean air in Europe : beyond the horizon?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 45:1, s. 7-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Hyvarinen, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Characterizing microbial exposure with ergosterol, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and viable microbes in house dust: Determinants and association with childhood asthma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health. - : Heldref Publications. - 1933-8244. ; 61:4, s. 149-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors assessed determinants of ergosterol, 3-OH fatty acids (FAs), and viable microbes in vacuum cleaner dust, and investioated the association between these microbial markets and childhood asthma. The authors studied the homes of 36 children who were new cases of childhood asthma and the homes of 36 controls. Home characteristics explained 34% to 44% of the variation in levels of different microbial groups. Determinants of 3-OH FAs were a lower level of cleanliness, having a fireplace, having livestock, and moisture damage; determinants of viable bacteria were the level of home repair needed and the material used in the building frame of the home. Ergosterol was associated with the presence of livestock and the practice of cleaning rugs outside; viable fungi was associated with the material used in the building frame, visible mold, and the practice of cleaning rugs Outside. Exposure to mesophilic actinonnycetes was nonsignificantly associated with risk of asthma. The authors Concluded that the variation of microbial levels in dust could be explained relatively well by home characteristics, and suggested that exposure to mesophilic actinomycetes may increase the risk of new asthma.
  • Koponen, Jani, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in children's serum
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 121, s. 591-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies suggest negative health impacts from early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, information on longitudinal exposure to PFASs during childhood is scarce for background-exposed individuals. This study sought to fill this gap by investigating children's longitudinal exposure trends through measurement of PFAS serum concentrations and calculation of body burdens (mu g, total in body). Blood of 54 Finnish children was sampled 2005-2015 and analyzed for 20 PFASs at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age. The body burden was calculated by multiplying the serum concentration by the volume of distribution and the bodyweight for each individual. Associations between serum concentrations or body burdens and parameters, such as sex, breastfeeding duration, body mass index as well as indoor dust and air PFAS concentrations, were evaluated. Serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with age. In contrast to serum concentrations, body burdens stayed unchanged or even increased significantly (p < 0.05), except for PFOA in female children. Breastfeeding duration was positively correlated (p < 0.001) with serum concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA and PFNA at 1 year of age. Some associations were found at 10.5 years with sex and indoor PFAS concentrations. Observations of longitudinal decreasing trends of serum concentrations can be misleading for understanding exposure levels from external media during childhood, as the serum concentration is influenced by parallel temporal changes and growth dilution. Body burdens account for growth dilution and thus better reflect differences in early-life to adolescence exposure than serum concentrations.
  • Lampi, Jussi, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of stimulated peripheral blood cytokine production among farming women
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. - : Elsevier. - 1618-131X. ; 214:3, s. 205-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Farming environment and environmental exposure to microbial agents have been suggested to promote favorable development of immune system in children and protect against allergic diseases. However, effects of farm exposure on adult immune responses are less clear. Aim of the present study was to examine associations of farm related factors and measured microbial exposure with stimulated production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood samples among farming women. Whole peripheral blood samples were obtained from 112 women living on farms and stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Following 24 h stimulation, protein levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. From house dust, concentrations of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10:0-C14:0, marker for Gram-negative bacteria), muramic acid (Gram-positive bacteria) and ergosterol (fungal biomass) were analyzed with GC-MS/MS and viable microbes by culturing. Information on farm related factors and allergic diseases were collected from self-administered questionnaires. We found that household pets or other current or childhood farm-related factors had only few associations with stimulated cytokine production among studied farming women. Similarly, no strong associations were observed between markers of microbial exposure measured in house dust and cytokine levels. Atopic sensitization, allergic rhinitis and recent respiratory infections were, however, associated with reduced IFN-gamma production. Our results suggest that the capacity of the studied environmental factors to modulate immune system is relatively weak in adulthood. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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