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Sökning: WFRF:(Pereira Santaella M.)

  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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  • Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • A CO molecular gas wind 340 pc away from the Seyfert 2 nucleus in ESO420-G13 probes an elusive radio jet*
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prominent jet-driven outflow of CO(2-1) molecular gas is found along the kinematic minor axis of the Seyfert 2 galaxy ESO 420-G13, at a distance of 340-600 pc from the nucleus. The wind morphology resembles the characteristic funnel shape, formed by a highly collimated filamentary emission at the base, and likely traces the jet propagation through a tenuous medium, until a bifurcation point at 440 pc. Here the jet hits a dense molecular core and shatters, dispersing the molecular gas into several clumps and filaments within the expansion cone. We also trace the jet in ionised gas within the inner less than or similar to 340 pc using the [NeII](12.8 mu m) line emission, where the molecular gas follows a circular rotation pattern. The wind outflow carries a mass of similar to 8 x 10(6) M-circle dot at an average wind projected speed of similar to 160 km s(-1), which implies a mass outflow rate of similar to 14 M-circle dot yr(-1). Based on the structure of the outflow and the budget of energy and momentum, we discard radiation pressure from the active nucleus, star formation, and supernovae as possible launching mechanisms. ESO 420-G13 is the second case after NGC 1377 where a previously unknown jet is revealed through its interaction with the interstellar medium, suggesting that unknown jets in feeble radio nuclei might be more common than expected. Two possible jet-cloud configurations are discussed to explain an outflow at this distance from the AGN. The outflowing gas will likely not escape, thus a delay in the star formation rather than quenching is expected from this interaction, while the feedback effect would be confined within the central few hundred parsecs of the galaxy.
  • Pereira-Santaella, M., et al. (författare)
  • Physics of ULIRGs with MUSE and ALMA: The PUMA project: II. Are local ULIRGs powered by AGN: The subkiloparsec view of the 220 GHz continuum
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze new high-resolution (400 pc) ∼220 GHz continuum and CO(2-1) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a representative sample of 23 local (z < 0.165) ultra-luminous infrared systems (ULIRGs; 34 individual nuclei) as part of the "Physics of ULIRGs with MUSE and ALMA"(PUMA) project. The deconvolved half-light radii of the ∼220 GHz continuum sources, rcont, are between < 60 pc and 350 pc (median 80-100 pc). We associate these regions with the regions emitting the bulk of the infrared luminosity (LIR). The good agreement, within a factor of 2, between the observed ∼220 GHz fluxes and the extrapolation of the infrared gray-body as well as the small contributions from synchrotron and free-free emission support this assumption. The cold molecular gas emission sizes, rCO, are between 60 and 700 pc and are similar in advanced mergers and early interacting systems. On average, rCO are ∼2.5 times larger than rcont. Using these measurements, we derived the nuclear LIR and cold molecular gas surface densities (ςLIR = 1011.5-1014.3 L· kpc-2 and ςH2 = 102.9-104.2 M· pc-2, respectively). Assuming that the LIR is produced by star formation, the median ςLIR corresponds to ςSFR = 2500 M· yr-1 kpc-2. This ςSFR implies extremely short depletion times, ςH2/ςSFR < 1-15 Myr, and unphysical star formation efficiencies > 1 for 70% of the sample. Therefore, this favors the presence of an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in these objects that could dominate the LIR. We also classify the ULIRG nuclei in two groups: (a) compact nuclei (rcont < 120 pc) with high mid-infrared excess emission (ΔL6-20 μm/LIR) found in optically classified AGN; and (b) nuclei following a relation with decreasing ΔL6-20 μm/LIR for decreasing rcont. The majority, 60%, of the nuclei in interacting systems lie in the low-rcont end (<120 pc) of this relation, while this is the case for only 30% of the mergers. This suggests that in the early stages of the interaction, the activity occurs in a very compact and dust-obscured region while, in more advanced merger stages, the activity is more extended, unless an optically detected AGN is present. Approximately two-thirds of the nuclei have nuclear radiation pressures above the Eddington limit. This is consistent with the ubiquitous detection of massive outflows in local ULIRGs and supports the importance of the radiation pressure in the outflow launching process.
  • Ramirez-Olivencia, Naim, et al. (författare)
  • Sub-arcsecond LOFAR imaging of Arp 299 at 150 MHz: Tracing the nuclear and diffuse extended emission of a bright LIRG
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Arp 299 is the brightest luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) within 50 Mpc, with IR luminosity log(LIR/L⊙) = 11.9. It provides a unique laboratory for testing physical processes in merging galaxies. Aims. We study for the first time the low-frequency (∼150 MHz) radio brightness distribution of Arp 299 at subarcsecond resolution, tracing in both compact and extended emission regions the local spectral energy distribution (SED) in order to characterize the dominant emission and absorption processes. Methods. We analysed the spatially resolved emission of Arp 299 revealed by 150 MHz international baseline Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and 1.4, 5.0, and 8.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations. Results. We present the first subarcsecond (0.4″ ×100 pc) image of the whole Arp 299 system at 150 MHz. The high surface brightness sensitivity of our LOFAR observations (∼100 μJy beam-1) allowed us to detect all of the nuclear components detected at higher frequencies, as well as the extended steep-spectrum emission surrounding the nuclei. We obtained spatially resolved, two-point spectral index maps for the whole galaxy: the compact nuclei show relatively flat spectra, while the extended, diffuse component shows a steep spectrum. We fitted the radio SED of the nuclear regions using two different models: a continuous free-free medium model and a clumpy model. The continuous model can explain the SED of the nuclei assuming a population of relativistic electrons subjected to synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, and ionization losses. The clumpy model fits assuming relativistic electrons with negligible energy losses, and thermal fractions that are more typical of star-forming galaxies than those required for the continuous model. Conclusions. Our results confirm the usefulness of combining spatially resolved radio imaging at both MHz and GHz frequencies to characterize in detail the radio emission properties of LIRGs from the central 100 pc out to the kiloparsec galaxy-wide scales.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution imaging of the molecular outflows in two mergers: IRAS 17208-0014 and NGC 1614
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. Aims. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC 1614 (DL = 66 Mpc) and IRAS 17208-0014 (DL = 181 Mpc), by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. Both galaxies present evidence of outflows in other phases of their ISM. Methods. We used the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) to image the CO(10) and CO(21) line emissions in NGC 1614 and IRAS 17208-0014, respectively, with high spatial resolution (0: 0051: 002). The velocity fields of the gas were analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum, and energy of these components. Results. While most (95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially resolved (23 kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that extend up to -500-700 km s1, well beyond the estimated virial range associated with rotation and turbulence. The kinematic major axis of the line-wing emission is tilted by 90 in NGC 1614 and by 180 in IRAS 17208-0014 relative to the major axes of their respective rotating disks. These results can be explained by the existence of non-coplanar molecular outflows in both systems: the outflow axis is nearly perpendicular to the rotating disk in NGC 1614, but it is tilted relative to the angular momentum axis of the rotating disk in IRAS 17208-0014. Conclusions. In stark contrast to NGC 1614, where star formation alone can drive its molecular outflow, the mass, energy, and momentum budget requirements of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 can be best accounted for by the existence of a so far undetected (hidden) AGN of LAGN71011 L The geometry of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 suggests that the outflow is launched by a non-coplanar disk that may be associated with a buried AGN in the western nucleus.
  • Donnan, F. R., et al. (författare)
  • A detailed look at the most obscured galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Compact obscured nuclei (CONs) represent an extreme phase of galaxy evolution where rapid supermassive black hole growth and/or compact star-forming activity is completely obscured by gas and dust. Aims. We investigate the properties of CONs in the mid-infrared and explore techniques aimed at identifying these objects, such as through the equivalent width (EW) ratios of their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. Methods. We modelled Spitzer spectra by decomposing the continua into nuclear and star-forming components, from which we then measured the nuclear optical depth, τN, of the 9.8 μm silicate absorption feature. We also used Spitzer spectral maps to investigate how PAH EW ratios vary with aperture size for objects that host CONs. Results. We find that the nuclear optical depth, τN, strongly correlates with the HCN-vib emission line in the millimetre for CONs, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91. We find the PAH EW ratio technique to be effective at selecting CONs and robust against highly inclined galaxies, where strong dust lanes may mimic a CON-like spectrum by producing a high τN. Our analysis of the Spitzer spectral maps shows that the efficacy of the PAH EW ratios in isolating CONs is reduced when there is a strong starforming component from the host galaxy. In addition, we find that the use of the inferred nuclear optical depth is a reliable method for identifying CONs in 36+8-7% of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and 17+3-3% of luminous infrared galaxies, consistent with previous work. Conclusions. We confirm mid-infrared spectra to be a powerful diagnostic of CONs. The increased sensitivity of JWST will allow the identification of CONs at cosmic noon, revealing this extreme but hidden phase of galaxy evolution.
  • Pereira-Santaella, M., et al. (författare)
  • Spatially resolved cold molecular outflows in ULIRGs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present new CO(2-1) observations of three low-z (d similar to 350 Mpc) ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) systems (six nuclei) observed with the Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) at high spatial resolution (similar to 500 pc). We detect massive cold molecular gas outflows in five out of six nuclei (M-out - (0.3-5) x 10(8) M-circle dot). These outflows are spatially resolved with deprojected effective radii between 250 pc and 1 kpc although high-velocity molecular gas is detected up to R-max similar to 0.5-1.8 kpc (1-6 kpc deprojected). The mass outflow rates are 12-400 M circle dot yr(-1) and the inclination corrected average velocity of the outflowing gas is 350-550 km s(-1) (v(max) = 500-900 km s(-1)). The origin of these outflows can be explained by the strong nuclear starbursts although the contribution of an obscured active galactic nucleus cannot be completely ruled out. The position angle (PA) of the outflowing gas along the kinematic minor axis of the nuclear molecular disk suggests that the outflow axis is perpendicular to the disk for three of these outflows. Only in one case is the outflow PA clearly not along the kinematic minor axis, which might indicate a different outflow geometry. The outflow depletion times are 15-80 Myr. These are comparable to, although slightly shorter than, the star-formation (SF) depletion times (30-80 Myr). However, we estimate that only 15-30% of the outflowing molecular gas will escape the gravitational potential of the nucleus. The majority of the outflowing gas will return to the disk after 5-10 Myr and become available to form new stars. Therefore, these outflows will not likely completely quench the nuclear starbursts. These star-forming powered molecular outflows would be consistent with being driven by radiation pressure from young stars (i.e., momentum-driven) only if the coupling between radiation and dust increases with increasing SF rates. This can be achieved if the dust optical depth is higher in objects with higher SF. This is the case in at least one of the studied objects. Alternatively, if the outflows are mainly driven by supernovae (SNe), the coupling efficiency between the interstellar medium and SNe must increase with increasing SF levels. The relatively small sizes (<1 kpc) and dynamical times (<3 Myr) of the cold molecular outflows suggests that molecular gas cannot survive longer in the outflow environment or that it cannot form efficiently beyond these distances or times. In addition, the ionized and hot molecular phases have been detected for several of these outflows, so this suggests that outflowing gas can experience phase changes and indicates that the outflowing gas is intrinsically multiphase, likely sharing similar kinematics, but different mass and, therefore, different energy and momentum contributions.
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  • Resultat 1-6 av 6

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