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1.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
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2.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The PREDICTS database : a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 4:24, s. 4701-4735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - ). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.
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4.
  • Jung, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of very old patients admitted to intensive care unit after acute versus elective surgery or intervention
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of critical care. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0883-9441 .- 1557-8615. ; 52, s. 141-148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to evaluate differences in outcome between patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after elective versus acute surgery in a multinational cohort of very old patients (80 years; VIP). Predictors of mortality, with special emphasis on frailty, were assessed.Methods: In total, 5063 VIPs were induded in this analysis, 922 were admitted after elective surgery or intervention, 4141 acutely, with 402 after acute surgery. Differences were calculated using Mann-Whitney-U test and Wilcoxon test. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations with mortality.Results: Compared patients admitted after acute surgery, patients admitted after elective surgery suffered less often from frailty as defined as CFS (28% vs 46%; p < 0.001), evidenced lower SOFA scores (4 +/- 5 vs 7 +/- 7; p < 0.001). Presence of frailty (CFS >4) was associated with significantly increased mortality both in elective surgery patients (7% vs 12%; p = 0.01), in acute surgery (7% vs 12%; p = 0.02).Conclusions: VIPs admitted to ICU after elective surgery evidenced favorable outcome over patients after acute surgery even after correction for relevant confounders. Frailty might be used to guide clinicians in risk stratification in both patients admitted after elective and acute surgery. 
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8.
  • Persson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Remembering our origin : Gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Behavioural Brain Research. - : Elsevier. - 0166-4328 .- 1872-7549. ; 256, s. 219-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. Left-sided activation during the pointing phase might reflect a less efficient post hoc verbal recapitulation of the route. This study is the first to identify neural correlates of the commonly observed male advantage in recalling one's original position, and points to hippocampal lateralization as a possible explanation for this behavioral gender difference. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Zhao, Lue Ping, et al. (författare)
  • Building and validating a prediction model for paediatric type 1 diabetes risk using next generation targeted sequencing of class II HLA genes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1520-7552 .- 1520-7560. ; 33:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: It is of interest to predict possible lifetime risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children for recruiting high-risk subjects into longitudinal studies of effective prevention strategies.METHODS: Utilizing a case-control study in Sweden, we applied a recently developed next generation targeted sequencing technology to genotype class II genes and applied an object-oriented regression to build and validate a prediction model for T1D.RESULTS: In the training set, estimated risk scores were significantly different between patients and controls (P = 8.12 × 10(-92) ), and the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 0.917. Using the validation data set, we validated the result with AUC of 0.886. Combining both training and validation data resulted in a predictive model with AUC of 0.903. Further, we performed a "biological validation" by correlating risk scores with 6 islet autoantibodies, and found that the risk score was significantly correlated with IA-2A (Z-score = 3.628, P < 0.001). When applying this prediction model to the Swedish population, where the lifetime T1D risk ranges from 0.5% to 2%, we anticipate identifying approximately 20 000 high-risk subjects after testing all newborns, and this calculation would identify approximately 80% of all patients expected to develop T1D in their lifetime.CONCLUSION: Through both empirical and biological validation, we have established a prediction model for estimating lifetime T1D risk, using class II HLA. This prediction model should prove useful for future investigations to identify high-risk subjects for prevention research in high-risk populations.
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10.
  • Zhao, Lue Ping, et al. (författare)
  • Eleven Amino Acids of HLA-DRB1 and Fifteen Amino Acids of HLA-DRB3, 4 and 5 Include Potentially "Causal Residues" Responsible for the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - Arlington, VA, United States : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 68:8, s. 1692-1704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Next generation targeted sequencing of HLA-DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 (abbreviated as DRB345) provides high resolution of functional variant positions to investigate their associations with type 1 diabetes risk and with autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), GAD65 (GADA), IA-2 (IA-2A) or ZnT8 (ZnT8A). To overcome exceptional DR sequence complexity due to high polymorphisms and extended linkage-disequilibrium among the DR loci, we apply a novel recursive organizer (ROR) to discover disease-associated amino acid residues. ROR distills disease associated DR sequences down and identifies eleven residues of DRB1, sequences of which retain all significant associations observed by DR genes. Further, all eleven residues locate under/adjoining the peptide binding groove of DRB1, suggesting a plausible functional mechanism through peptide binding. In addition, 15 residues of DRB345, located respectively in the β50-55 homodimerization patch and in face of the molecule shown to interact with and bind to the accessory molecule CD4, retain their significant disease associations. Further ROR analysis of DR associations with autoantibodies finds DRB1 residues significantly associated with ZnT8A and DRB345-residues with GADA. The strongest association is between four residues (χ14, β25, β71 and β73) and IA-2A, in which a sequence "ERKA" confers a risk association (OR=2.15, p-value=10-18), and another sequence "ERKG" confers a protective association (OR=0.59, p-value=10-11), despite a difference of only one amino acid. As motifs of identified residues capture potentially causal DR associations with type 1 diabetes, this list of residuals is expected to include corresponding causal residues in this study population.
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