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1.
  • Ostgren, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries: A population-based cohort analysis from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Sage Publications. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 28:3, s. 250-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. Design The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. Methods From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. Results Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). Conclusion Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.
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2.
  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 278:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.
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3.
  • Fridberg, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Protein expression and cellular localization in two prognostic subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Higher expression of ZAP70 and PKC-beta II in the non-germinal center group and poor survival in patients deficient in nuclear PTEN
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Leukemia & Lymphoma. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1042-8194 .- 1029-2403. ; 48:11, s. 2221-2232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) show varying responses to conventional therapy, and this might be contributed to the differentiation stage of the tumor B-cells. The aim of the current study was to evaluate a panel of kinases (ZAP70, PKC-beta I and II and phosphorylated PKB/Akt) and phosphatases (PTEN, SHP1 and SHP2) known to be frequently deregulated in lymphoid malignancies. De novo DLBCL cases were divided into two subgroups, the germinal center (GC) group (14/28) and the non-germinal center (non-GC) or activated B-cell (ABC) group (14/28). ZAP70 and PKC-beta II were expressed in a significantly higher percentage of tumor cells in the clinically more aggressive non-GC group compared with the prognostically favourable GC group. Also, the subcellular localization of PKC-beta I and II differed in DLBCL cells, with the PKC-beta I isoform being expressed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, while PKC-beta II was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. Loss of nuclear PTEN correlated with poor survival in cases from both subgroups. In addition, five cell lines of DLBCL origin were analyzed for protein expression and for mRNA levels of PTEN and SHP1. For the first time, we show that ZAP70 is expressed in a higher percentage of tumor cells in the aggressive non-GC subgroup of DLBCL and that PKC-beta I and II are differently distributed in the two prognostic subgroups of de novo DLBCL.
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5.
  • Bergström, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Health system context and implementation of evidence-based practices-development and validation of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool for low- and middle-income settings
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science. - 1748-5908 .- 1748-5908. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The gap between what is known and what is practiced results in health service users not benefitting from advances in healthcare, and in unnecessary costs. A supportive context is considered a key element for successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). There were no tools available for the systematic mapping of aspects of organizational context influencing the implementation of EBPs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, this project aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a tool for this purpose. Methods: The development of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was premised on the context dimension in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, and is a derivative product of the Alberta Context Tool. Its development was undertaken in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Uganda, South Africa and Nicaragua in six phases: (1) defining dimensions and draft tool development, (2) content validity amongst in-country expert panels, (3) content validity amongst international experts, (4) response process validity, (5) translation and (6) evaluation of psychometric properties amongst 690 health workers in the five countries. Results: The tool was validated for use amongst physicians, nurse/midwives and community health workers. The six phases of development resulted in a good fit between the theoretical dimensions of the COACH tool and its psychometric properties. The tool has 49 items measuring eight aspects of context: Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work, Informal payment, Leadership, Work culture, Monitoring services for action and Sources of knowledge. Conclusions: Aspects of organizational context that were identified as influencing the implementation of EBPs in high-income settings were also found to be relevant in LMICs. However, there were additional aspects of context of relevance in LMICs specifically Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work and Informal payment. Use of the COACH tool will allow for systematic description of the local healthcare context prior implementing healthcare interventions to allow for tailoring implementation strategies or as part of the evaluation of implementing healthcare interventions and thus allow for deeper insights into the process of implementing EBPs in LMICs.
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6.
  • da Silva, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Resolution characterization of a silicon-based, photon-counting computed tomography prototype capable of patient scanning
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Imaging. - USA : SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. - 2329-4302 .- 2329-4310. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photon-counting detectors are expected to bring a range of improvements to patient imaging with x-ray computed tomography (CT). One is higher spatial resolution. We demonstrate the resolution obtained using a commercial CT scanner where the original energy-integrating detector has been replaced by a single-slice, silicon-based, photon-counting detector. This prototype constitutes the first full-field-of-view silicon-based CT scanner capable of patient scanning. First, the pixel response function and focal spot profile are measured and, combining the two, the system modulation transfer function is calculated. Second, the prototype is used to scan a resolution phantom and a skull phantom. The resolution images are compared to images from a state-of-the-art CT scanner. The comparison shows that for the prototype 19 lp∕cm are detectable with the same clarity as 14 lp∕cm on the reference scanner at equal dose and reconstruction grid, with more line pairs visible with increasing dose and decreasing image pixel size. The high spatial resolution remains evident in the anatomy of the skull phantom and is comparable to that of other photon-counting CT prototypes present in the literature. We conclude that the deep silicon-based detector used in our study could provide improved spatial resolution in patient imaging without increasing the x-ray dose.
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7.
  • Dalmar, Abdirisak Ahmed, et al. (författare)
  • Rebuilding research capacity in fragile states : the case of a Somali-Swedish global health initiative
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - Abingdon : Taylor & Francis. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents an initiative to revive the previous Somali-Swedish Research Cooperation, which started in 1981 and was cut short by the civil war in Somalia. A programme focusing on research capacity building in the health sector is currently underway through the work of an alliance of three partner groups: six new Somali universities, five Swedish universities, and Somali diaspora professionals. Somali ownership is key to the sustainability of the programme, as is close collaboration with Somali health ministries. The programme aims to develop a model for working collaboratively across regions and cultural barriers within fragile states, with the goal of creating hope and energy. It is based on the conviction that health research has a key role in rebuilding national health services and trusted institutions.
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8.
  • Eriksson, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-based practice in neonatal health : knowledge among primary health care staff in northern Viet Nam
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Resources for Health. - : Springer. - 1478-4491. ; 7, s. 36-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An estimated four million deaths occur each year among children in the neonatal period. Current evidence-based interventions could prevent a large proportion of these deaths. However, health care workers involved in neonatal care need to have knowledge regarding such practices before being able to put them into action.The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge of primary health care practitioners regarding basic, evidence-based procedures in neonatal care in a Vietnamese province. A further aim was to investigate whether differences in level of knowledge were linked to certain characteristics of community health centres, such as access to national guidelines in reproductive health care, number of assisted deliveries and geographical location.METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was completed within a baseline study preparing for an intervention study on knowledge translation (Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival: a community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, the NeoKIP project, ISRCTN44599712). Sixteen multiple-choice questions from five basic areas of evidence-based practice in neonatal care were distributed to 155 community health centres in 12 districts in a Vietnamese province, reaching 412 primary health care workers.RESULTS: All health care workers approached for the survey responded. Overall, they achieved 60% of the maximum score of the questionnaire. Staff level of knowledge on evidence-based practice was linked to the geographical location of the CHC, but not to access to the national guidelines or the number of deliveries at the community level. Two separated geographical areas were identified with differences in staff level of knowledge and concurrent differences in neonatal survival, antenatal care and postnatal home visits.CONCLUSION: We have identified a complex pattern of associations between knowledge, geography, demographic factors and neonatal outcomes. Primary health care staff knowledge regarding neonatal health is scarce. This is a factor that is possible to influence and should be considered in future efforts for improving the neonatal health situation in Viet Nam.
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9.
  • Eriksson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Secular trend, seasonality and effects of a community-based intervention on neonatal mortality: follow-up of a cluster-randomised trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. - 0143-005X .- 1470-2738. ; 72:9, s. 776-782
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial. Methods In Quang Ninh province, 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Births and neonatal deaths were assessed in a baseline survey in 2005, monitored during the trial in 2008-2011 and followed up by a survey in 2014. Time series analyses were performed on monthly neonatal mortality data. Results There were 30 187 live births and 480 neonatal deaths. The intervention reduced the neonatal mortality from 19.1 to 11.6 per 1000 live births. The reduction was sustained 3 years after the trial. The control areas reached a similar level at the time of follow-up. Time series decomposition analysis revealed a downward trend in the intervention areas during the trial that was not found in the control areas. Neonatal mortality peaked in the hot and wet summers. Conclusions A community engagement intervention resulted in a lower neonatal mortality rate that was sustained but not further reduced after the end of the trial. When decomposing time series of neonatal mortality, a clear downward trend was demonstrated in intervention but not in control areas.
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