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Sökning: WFRF:(Petrelli Riccardo)

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  • Petrelli, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 21:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 mu g/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 mu g/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 mu g/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 mu g/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 mu g/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 mu mol.TE/g).
  • Baldassarri, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Antitrypanosomal Activity of Anthriscus Nemorosa Essential Oils and Combinations of Their Main Constituents
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Antibiotics. - : MDPI. - 0066-4774 .- 2079-6382. ; 10:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei to the Anthriscus nemorosa essential oils (EOs), isolated compounds from these oils, and artificial mixtures of the isolated compounds in their conventional and nanoencapsulated forms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from the aerial parts and roots of Anthriscus nemorosa, obtained from a wild population growing in central Italy, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In both cases, the predominant class of compounds was monoterpene hydrocarbons, which were more abundant in the EOs from the roots (81.5%) than the aerial parts (74.0%). The overall results of this work have shed light on the biological properties of A. nemorosa EO from aerial parts (EC50 = 1.17 μg/mL), farnesene (EC50 = 0.84 μg/mL), and artificial mixtures (Mix 3–5, EC50 in the range of 1.27 to 1.58 μg/mL) as relevant sources of antiprotozoal substances. Furthermore, the pool measurements of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and NTPs (nucleoside triphosphates) in the cultivated bloodstream form of trypanosomes exposed to different concentrations of EOs showed a disturbed energy metabolism, as indicated by increased pools of ADP in comparison to ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and other NTPs. Ultimately, this study highlights the significant efficacy of A. nemorosa EO to develop long-lasting and effective antiprotozoal formulations, including nanoemulsions.
  • Benelli, Giovanni, et al. (författare)
  • Mosquito control with green nanopesticides : towards the One Health approach? A review of non-target effects
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. - 0944-1344 .- 1614-7499. ; 25:11, s. 10184-10206
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied. Most importantly, a cooperative interface between the two disciplines is still lacking. To face this challenge, we have reviewed a wide number of promising results in the field of green-fabricated pesticides tested against mosquito vectors, outlining several examples of synergy with classic biological control tools. The non-target effects of green-fabricated nanopesticides, including acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and impact on behavioral traits of mosquito predators, have been critically discussed. In the final section, we have identified several key challenges at the interface between "green" nanotechnology and classic biological control, which deserve further research attention.
  • Frezza, Claudio, et al. (författare)
  • Phytochemical Analysis and Trypanocidal Activity of Marrubium incanum Desr.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : MDPI. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 25:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rationale inspiring the discovery of lead compounds for the treatment of human parasitic protozoan diseases from natural sources is the well-established use of medicinal plants in various systems of traditional medicine. On this basis, we decided to select an overlooked medicinal plant growing in central Italy, Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae), which has been used as a traditional remedy against protozoan diseases, and to investigate its potential against Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). For this purpose, we assayed three extracts of different polarities obtained from the aerial parts of M. incanum—namely, water (MarrInc-H2O), ethanol (MarrInc-EtOH) and dichloromethane (MarrInc-CH2Cl2)—against Trypanosoma brucei (TC221), with the aim to discover lead compounds for the development of antitrypanosomal drugs. Their selectivity index (SI) was determined on mammalian cells (BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) as a counter-screen for toxicity. The preliminary screening selected the MarrInc-CH2Cl2 extract as the most promising candidate against HAT, showing an IC50 value of 28 μg/mL. On this basis, column chromatography coupled with the NMR spectroscopy of a MarrInc-CH2Cl2 extract led to the isolation and identification of five compounds i.e. 1-α-linolenoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn- glycerol (1), 1-linoleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (2), stigmasterol (3), palmitic acid (4), and salvigenin (5). Notably, compounds 3 and 5 were tested on T. brucei, with the latter being five-fold more active than the MarrInc-CH2Cl2 extract (IC50 = 5.41 ± 0.85 and 28 ± 1.4 μg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, the SI for salvigenin was >18.5, showing a preferential effect on target cells compared with the dichloromethane extract (>3.6). Conversely, stigmasterol was found to be inactive. To complete the work, also the more polar MarrInc-EtOH extract was analyzed, giving evidence for the presence of 2″-O-allopyranosyl-cosmosiin (6), verbascoside (7), and samioside (8). Our findings shed light on the phytochemistry of this overlooked species and its antiprotozoal potential, providing evidence for the promising role of flavonoids such as salvigenin for the treatment of protozoal diseases.
  • Kamte, Stephane L. Ngahang, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of highly effective antitrypanosomal compounds in essential oils from the Apiaceae family
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. - : Elsevier. - 0147-6513 .- 1090-2414. ; 156, s. 154-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options. In the present work, we focused on a panel of nine Apiaceae species (Siler montamon, Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Kundmannia sicula, Crithmum maritimum, Helosciadium nodiforum, Pimpinella anisum, Heracleum sphondylium and Trachyspermum cunmi) and their essential oils as a model for the identification of trypanocidal compounds to be used as alternative/integrative therapies in the treatment of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and as starting material for drug design. The evaluation of inhibitory effects of the Apiaceae essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei showed that some of them (E. spinosa, S. amomum, C. maritimwn and H. nodifloruin) were active, with EC50 in the range 2.7-10.7 mu g/mL. Most of these oils were selective against T. brucei, except the one from C. maritimum that was highly selective against the BALB/3T3 mammalian cells. Testing nine characteristic individual components (a-pinene, sabinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene, limonene, beta-ocimene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and myristicin) of these oils, we showed that some of them had much higher selectivity than the oils themselves. Terpinolene was particularly active with an EC50 value of 0.035 mu g/rnL (0.26 mu M) and a selectivity index (SI) of 180. Four other compounds with EC50 in the range 1.0-6.0 mu g/mL (7.4-44 mu M) had also good SI: a-pinene (> 100), beta-ocimene (> 91), limonene (> 18) and sabinene ( > 17). In conclusion, these results highlight that the essential oils from the Apiaceae family are a reservoir of substances to be used as leading compounds for the development of natural drugs for the treatment of HAT.
  • Kamte, Stephane L. Ngahang, et al. (författare)
  • Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 14:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 mu g/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.
  • Petrelli, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • An overlooked horticultural crop, Smyrnium olusatrum, as a potential source of compounds effective against African trypanosomiasis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Parasitology international. - 1383-5769 .- 1873-0329. ; 66:2, s. 146-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among natural products, sesquiterpenes have shown promising inhibitory effects against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Smyrnium olusatrum (Apiaceae), also known as Alexanders or wild celery, is a neglected horticultural crop characterized by oxygenated sesquiterpenes containing a furan ring. In the present work we explored the potential of its essential oils obtained from different organs and the main oxygenated sesquiterpenes, namely isofuranodiene, germacrone and β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene, as inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei. All essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of parasite showing IC50 values of 1.9–4.0 μg/ml. Among the main essential oil constituents, isofuranodiene exhibited a significant and selective inhibitory activity against T. brucei (IC50 of 0.6 μg/ml, SI = 30), with β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene giving a moderate potentiating effect. These results shed light on the possible application of isofuranodiene as an antiprotozoal agent to be included in combination treatments aimed not only at curing patients but also at preventing the diffusion of HAT.
  • Petrelli, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • From the covalent linkage of drugs to novel inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase : Synthesis and biological evaluation of valproic esters of 3'-C-methyladenosine
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. - 0960-894X .- 1464-3405. ; 24:22, s. 5304-5309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We synthesized a series of serum-stable covalently linked drugs derived from 3'-C-methyladenosine (3'-Me-Ado) and valproic acid (VPA), which are ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, respectively. While the combination of free VPA and 3'-Me-Ado resulted in a clear synergistic apoptotic effect, the conjugates had lost their HDAC inhibitory effect as well as the corresponding apoptotic activity. Two of the analogs, 2',5'-bis-O-valproyl-3'-C-methyladenosine (A160) and 5'-O-valproyl-3'-C-methyladenosine (A167), showed promising cytotoxic activities against human hematological and solid cancer cell lines. A167 was less potent than A160 but had interesting features as an RR inhibitor. It inhibited RR activity by competing with ATP as an allosteric effector and concomitantly reduced the intracellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. A167 represents a novel lead compound, which in contrast to previously used RR nucleoside analogs does not require intracellular kinases for its activity and therefore holds promise against drug resistant tumors with downregulated nucleoside kinases.
  • Sut, Stefania, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of tagitinin C from Tithonia diversifolia as antitrypanosomal compound using bioactivity-guided fractionation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Fitoterapia (Milano). - : Elsevier. - 0367-326X .- 1873-6971. ; 124, s. 145-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae), is used as traditional medicine in tropical countries for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Although numerous studies have assessed the antimalarial properties, nothing is known about the effect of T. diversifolia extracts on trypanosomiasis. In this study extracts of T. diversifolia aerial parts were evaluated for their bioactivity against Trypanosoma brucei. The activity was studied against bloodstream forms of T. brucei (TC221), as well as against mammalian cells (BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts), as a counter-screen for toxicity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant effects with IC50 values of 1.1 and 2.2 mu g/mL against T. brucei (TC221) and 5.2 and 3.7 mu g/mL against BALB/3T3 cells, respectively. A bioassay-guided fractionation on the methanolic extract yielded in identification of active fractions (F8 and F9) with IC50 values of 0.41 and 0.43 mu g/mL, respectively, against T. brucei (TC221) and 1.4 and 1.5 mu g/mL, respectively, against BALB/3T3 cells,. The phytochemical composition of the extracts and the purified fractions were investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectra showing the presence of sesquiterpene lactones that in turn were subjected to the isolation procedure. Tagitinin A and C were rather active but the latter presented a very strong inhibition on T. brucei (TC221) with an IC50 value of 0.0042 mu g/mL. This activity was 4.5 times better than that of the reference drug suramin. The results of this study shed light on the antitrypanosomal effects of T. diversifolia extracts and highlighted tagitinin C as one of the possible responsible for this effect. Further structure activity relationships studies on tagitinins are needed to consider this sesquiterpenes as lead compounds for the development of new antitrypanosomal drugs.
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