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  • Olsson, Bob, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • CSF and blood biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465. ; 15:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are important for early diagnosis in routine clinical practice and research. Three core CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (Aβ42, T-tau, and P-tau) have been assessed in numerous studies, and several other Alzheimer's disease markers are emerging in the literature. However, there have been no comprehensive meta-analyses of their diagnostic performance. We systematically reviewed the literature for 15 biomarkers in both CSF and blood to assess which of these were most altered in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Aryal, Umesh R., 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1654-9880 .- 1654-9716. ; 7, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results: The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions: Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese nonsmoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in social gatherings, and discussing harmful effects of smoking with family members and during gatherings with friends.
  • Aryal, Umesh R., 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived risks and benefits of cigarette smoking among Nepalese adolescents: a population-based cross-sectional study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - 1471-2458. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The perceived risks and benefits of smoking may play an important role in determining adolescents' susceptibility to initiating smoking. Our study examined the perceived risks and benefits of smoking among adolescents who demonstrated susceptibility or non susceptibility to smoking initiation. METHODS: In October--November 2011, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Jhaukhel and Duwakot Villages in Nepal. Located in the mid-hills of Bhaktapur District, 13 kilometers east of Kathmandu, Jhaukhel and Duwakot represent the prototypical urbanizing villages that surround Nepal's major urban centers, where young people have easy access to tobacco products and are influenced by advertising. Jhaukhel and Duwakot had a total population of 13,669, of which 15% were smokers. Trained enumerators used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 352 randomly selected 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. The enumerators asked the adolescents to estimate their likelihood (0%--100%) of experiencing various smoking-related risks and benefits in a hypothetical scenario. RESULTS: Principal component analysis extracted four perceived risk and benefit components, excluding addiction risk: (i) physical risk I (lung cancer, heart disease, wrinkles, bad colds) ;(ii) physical risk II (bad cough, bad breath, trouble breathing);(iii) social risk (getting into trouble, smelling like an ashtray); and (iv) social benefit(looking cool, feeling relaxed, becoming popular, and feeling grown-up). The adjusted odds ratio of susceptibility increased 1.20-fold with each increased quartile in perception of physical Risk I. Susceptibility to smoking was 0.27- and 0.90-fold less among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of physical Risk II and social risk, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility was 2.16-fold greater among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of addiction risk. Physical risk I, addiction risk, and social benefits of cigarette smoking related positively, and physical risk II and social risk related negatively, with susceptibility to smoking. CONCLUSION: To discourage or prevent adolescents from initiating smoking, future intervention programs should focus on communicating not only the health risks but also the social and addiction risks as well as counteract the social benefits of smoking.
  • Choulagai, Bishnu, et al. (författare)
  • Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1654-9880 .- 1654-9716. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012). Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively), whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively). At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1%) exceeded the national average (36%). Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle) to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems) remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13.2% accessed adequate postnatal care. Availability of transport and use of antenatal care was associated positively with institutional delivery.
  • Abrahams, N., et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide prevalence of non-partner sexual violence: a systematic review
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 383:9929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several highly publicised rapes and murders of young women in India and South Africa have focused international attention on sexual violence. These cases are extremes of the wider phenomenon of sexual violence against women, but the true extent is poorly quantified. We did a systematic review to estimate prevalence. Methods: We searched for articles published from Jan 1, 1998, to Dec 31, 2011, and manually search reference lists and contacted experts to identify population-based data on the prevalence of women's reported experiences of sexual violence from age 15 years onwards, by anyone except intimate partners. We used random effects meta-regression to calculate adjusted and unadjusted prevalence for regions, which we weighted by population size to calculate the worldwide estimate. Findings: We identified 7231 studies from which we obtained 412 estimates covering 56 countries. In 2010 7·2% (95% CI 5·2-9·1) of women worldwide had ever experienced non-partner sexual violence. The highest estimates were in sub-Saharan Africa, central (21%, 95%CI 4·5-37·5) and sub-Saharan Africa, southern (17·4%, 11·4-23·3). The lowest prevalence was for Asia, south (3·3%, 0-8·3). Limited data were available from sub-Saharan Africa, central, North Africa/Middle East, Europe, eastern, and Asia Pacific, high income. Interpretation: Sexual violence against women is common worldwide, with endemic levels seen in some areas, although large variations between settings need to be interpreted with caution because of differences in data availability and levels of disclosure. Nevertheless, our findings indicate a pressing health and human rights concern. Funding: South African Medical Research Council, Sigrid Rausing Trust, WHO. © 2014 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved.
  • Ahmed, Syed Masud, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted intervention for the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh: Does it make any difference in their health-seeking behaviour?
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Social Science & Medicine. ; 63:11, s. 2899-2911
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is now well recognised that regular microcredit intervention is not enough to effectively reach the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh, in fact it actively excludes them for structural reasons. A grants-based integrated intervention was developed (with health inputs to mitigate the income-erosion effect of illness) to examine whether such a targeted intervention could change the health-seeking behaviour of the ultra-poor towards greater use of health services and "formal allopathic" providers during illness, besides improving their poverty status and capacity for health expenditure. The study was carried out in three northern districts of Bangladesh with high density of ultra poor households, using a pre-test/post-test control group design. A pre-intervention baseline (2189 interventions and 2134 controls) survey was undertaken in 2002 followed by an intervention (of 18 months duration) and a post-intervention follow-up survey of the same households in 2004. Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on health-seeking behaviour of household members. Findings reveal an overall change in health-seeking behaviour in the study population, but the intervention reduced self-care by 7 percentage units and increased formal allopathic care by 9 percentage units. The intervention increased the proportion of non-deficit households by 43 percentage units, as well as the capacity to spend more than Tk. 25 for treatment of illness during the reference period by 11 percentage units. Higher health expenditure and time (pre- to -post-intervention period) was associated with increased use of health care from formal allopathic providers. However, gender differences in health-seeking and health-expenditure disfavouring women were also noted. The programmatic implications of these findings are discussed in the context of improving the ability of health systems to reach the ultra poor.
  • Ahmed, W., et al. (författare)
  • A hybrid, effectiveness-implementation research study protocol targeting antenatal care providers to provide female genital mutilation prevention and care services in Guinea, Kenya and Somalia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn settings with high prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM), the health sector could play a bigger role in its prevention and care of women and girls who have undergone this harmful practice. However, ministries of health lack clear policies, strategic plans or dedicated funding to implement anti-FGM interventions. Along with limited relevant knowledge and skills to prevent the practice of FGM and care for girls and women living with FGM, health providers have limited interpersonal communication skills and self-efficacy, while some may have supportive attitudes towards FGM and its medicalization. We propose to test the effectiveness of a health system strengthening intervention that includes training antenatal care (ANC) providers on person-centred communication (PCC) for FGM prevention.MethodsThis will be a two-level, hybrid, effectiveness-implementation research study using a cluster randomized trial design in Guinea, Kenya and Somalia conducted over a 6months period. In each country, within pre-selected regions/counties, 60 ANC clinics will be randomized to intervention and control arms. At baseline, all clinics will receive the level one intervention involving provision of FGM-related clinical guidelines and handbook as well as anti-FGM policies and posters. At month 3, intervention clinics will receive the level two intervention comprising of a training for ANC providers on PCC to challenge their FGM-related attitudes and build their communication skills to effectively provide FGM prevention counselling. A process evaluation will be conducted to understand 'how' and 'why' the intervention package achieves intended results. Multi-level regression modelling will be used for quantitative data analysis while qualitative data will be assessed using thematic content analysis to determine the effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of the different intervention levels.DiscussionThe proposed study will strengthen the knowledge base regarding how to effectively involve health providers in FGM prevention and care.Trial registrationTrial registration and date: PACTR201906696419769 (June 3rd, 2019).
  • Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S245-S255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2-127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59-.78; P < .0001). Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained CHWs increases access to diagnosis and treatment, shortens clinical episode duration, and reduces the number of severe cases. This approach, recommended by the World Health Organization, improves malaria case management. ISRCTN13858170.
  • Almohandes, Ahmed, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy of bone-level assessments following reconstructive surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research. - 0905-7161.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of bone-level assessments using either cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), intra-oral peri-apical (PA) radiographs or histology following reconstructive treatment of experimental peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods Six Labrador dogs were used. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced 3 months after implant placement. Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was performed and peri-implant defects were allocated to one of four treatment categories; no augmentation, bone graft materials with or without a barrier membrane. Six months later, intra-oral PA radiographs and block biopsies from all implants sites were obtained. Marginal bone levels (MBLs) were measured using PA radiographs, CBCT and histology. Results Significant correlations of MBL assessments were observed between the three methods. The measurements in PA radiographs consistently resulted in an overestimation of the bone level of about 0.3-0.4 mm. The agreement between the methods was not influenced by the use of bone substitute materials in the management of the osseous defects. Conclusions Although MBL assessments obtained from PA radiographs showed an overestimation compared to MBL assessments on corresponding CBCT images and histological sections, PA radiographs can be considered a reliable technique for peri-implant bone-level evaluations following reconstructive surgical therapy of experimental peri-implantitis.
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