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Sökning: WFRF:(Pilbratt G.)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Eiroa, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cold DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES). First results A resolved exo-Kuiper belt around the solar-like star zeta(2) Ret
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first far-IR observations of the solar-type stars delta Pav, HR 8501, 51 Peg and zeta(2) Ret, taken within the context of the DUNES Herschel open time key programme (OTKP). This project uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments with the objective of studying infrared excesses due to exo-Kuiper belts around nearby solar-type stars. The observed 100 mu m fluxes from delta Pav, HR 8501, and 51 Peg agree with the predicted photospheric fluxes, excluding debris disks brighter than L-dust/L-star similar to 5 x 10(-7) (1 sigma level) around those stars. A flattened, disk-like structure with a semi-major axis of similar to 100 AU in size is detected around zeta(2) Ret. The resolved structure suggests the presence of an eccentric dust ring, which we interpret as an exo-Kuiper belt with L-dust/L-star approximate to 10(-5).
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2.
  • Eiroa, C., et al. (författare)
  • DUst around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. Methods. We used Herschel/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 mu m were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 mu m, and at 250, 350 and 500 mu m using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 mu m to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of similar to 12.1% +/- 5% before Herschel to similar to 20.2% +/- 2%. A significant fraction (similar to 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 mu m range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.
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3.
  • Liseau, René, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • alpha Centauri A in the far infrared - First measurement of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far.Aims. The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submillimetre spectral regime. We aim at determining the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star alpha Cen A. As a bonus this will also provide a detailed mapping of the spectral energy distribution, i.e. knowledge that is crucial when searching for faint, Kuiper belt-like dust emission around other stars.Methods. For the nearby binary system alpha Cen, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters T-eff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate stellar model atmospheres in the grid of Gaia/PHOENIX and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star alpha Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is compared to Spitzer-MIPS, Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry. A specifically tailored Uppsala model based on the MARCS code and extending further in wavelength is used to gauge the emission characteristics of alpha Cen A in the far infared.Results. Similar to the Sun, the far infrared (FIR) emission of alpha Cen A originates in the minimum temperature region above the stellar photosphere in the visible. However, in comparison with the solar case, the FIR photosphere of alpha Cen A appears marginally cooler, T-min similar to T-160 (mu m) = 3920 +/- 375 K. Beyond the minimum near 160 mu m, the brightness temperatures increase, and this radiation very likely originates in warmer regions of the chromosphere of alpha Cen A.Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun.
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4.
  • Penston, M. V., et al. (författare)
  • The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 236:1, s. 53-6262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the extended narrow line region (ENLR) of that galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically undisturbed gas in the disc of the galaxy which is illuminated by an ionizing continuum stronger by a factor of 13 than a power law interpolated between observed ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes. Explanations of this apparent excess include a hot thermal continuum, time variations and an anisotropic radiation field. The authors give reasons for favouring anisotropy which might be caused by shadowing by a thick accretion disc or by relativistic beaming. Shadowing by a molecular torus is unlikely, given the absence of an infrared signal from the reradiated flux absorbed by any torus. Anisotropy would have important implications for the bolometric luminosity and nature of active galactic nuclei
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5.
  • Tinetti, G., et al. (författare)
  • A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Experimental Astronomy. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 46:1, s. 135-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution. ARIEL was conceived to observe a large number (~1000) of transiting planets for statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25–7.8 μm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIEL will focus on warm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials compared to their colder Solar System siblings. Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulk composition. Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of their elemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si), will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate this directly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-light spectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10–100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4 NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species. Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed – using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement – using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusion at the end of the Phase A study, is that ARIEL – in line with the stated mission objectives – will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.
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6.
  • Liseau, René, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Resolving the cold debris disc around a planet-hosting star. PACS photometric imaging observations of q1 Eridani (HD 10647, HR 506)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. About two dozen exo-solar debris systems have been spatially resolved. These debris discs commonly display a variety of structural features such as clumps, rings, belts, excentric distributions and spiral patterns. In most cases, these features are believed to be formed, shaped and maintained by the dynamical influence of planets orbiting the host stars. In very few cases has the presence of the dynamically important planet(s) been inferred from direct observation. Aims. The solar-type star q(1) Eri is known to be surrounded by debris, extended on scales of less than or similar to 30 ''. The star is also known to host at least one planet, albeit on an orbit far too small to make it responsible for structures at distances of tens to hundreds of AU. The aim of the present investigation is twofold: to determine the optical and material properties of the debris and to infer the spatial distribution of the dust, which may hint at the presence of additional planets. Methods. The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) aboard the Herschel Space Observatory allows imaging observations in the far infrared at unprecedented resolution, i.e. at better than 6 '' to 12 '' over the wavelength range of 60 mu m to 210 mu m. Together with the results from ground-based observations, these spatially resolved data can be modelled to determine the nature of the debris and its evolution more reliably than what would be possible from unresolved data alone. Results. For the first time has the q(1) Eri disc been resolved at far infrared wavelengths. The PACS observations at 70 mu m, 100 mu m and 160 mu m reveal an oval image showing a disc-like structure in all bands, the size of which increases with wavelength. Assuming a circular shape yields the inclination of its equatorial plane with respect to that of the sky, i > 53 degrees. The results of image de-convolution indicate that i likely is larger than 63 degrees, where 90 degrees corresponds to an edge-on disc. Conclusions. The observed emission is thermal and optically thin. The resolved data are consistent with debris at temperatures below 30 K at radii larger than 120 AU. From image de-convolution, we find that q(1) Eri is surrounded by an about 40 AU wide ring at the radial distance of similar to 85 AU. This is the first real Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt analogue ever observed.
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7.
  • Marshall, J. P., et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between the stellar, planetary, and debris components of exoplanet systems observed by Herschel
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 565, s. A15-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Stars form surrounded by gas- and dust-rich protoplanetary discs. Generally, these discs dissipate over a few (3-10) Myr, leaving a faint tenuous debris disc composed of second-generation dust produced by the attrition of larger bodies formed in the protoplanetary disc. Giant planets detected in radial velocity and transit surveys of main-sequence stars also form within the protoplanetary disc, whilst super-Earths now detectable may form once the gas has dissipated. Our own solar system, with its eight planets and two debris belts, is a prime example of an end state of this process. Aims. The Herschel DEBRIS, DUNES, and GI' programmes observed 37 exoplanet host stars within 25 pc at 70, 100, and 160 mu m with the sensitivity to detect far-infrared excess emission at flux density levels only an order of magnitude greater than that of the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. Here we present an analysis of that sample, using it to more accurately determine the (possible) level of dust emission from these exoplanet host stars and thereafter determine the links between the various components of these exoplanetary systems through statistical analysis. Methods. We have fitted the flux densities measured from recent Herschel observations with a simple two parameter (T-d, L-IR/L-*) black-body model (or to the 3 sigma upper limits at 100 mu m). From this uniform approach we calculated the fractional luminosity, radial extent and dust temperature. We then plotted the calculated dust luminosity or upper limits against the stellar properties, e.g. effective temperature, metallicity, and age, and identified correlations between these parameters. Results. A total of eleven debris discs are identified around the 37 stars in the sample. An incidence of ten cool debris discs around the Sun-like exoplanet host stars (29 +/- 9%) is consistent with the detection rate found by DUNES (20.2 +/- 2.0%). For the debris disc systems, the dust temperatures range from 20 to 80 K, and fractional luminosities (L-IR/L-*) between 2.4 x10(-6) and 4.1 x10(-4). In the case of non-detections, we calculated typical 3 sigma upper limits to the dust fractional luminosities of a few x10(-6). Conclusions. We recover the previously identified correlation between stellar metallicity and hot-Jupiter planets in our data set. We find a correlation between the increased presence of dust, lower planet masses, and lower stellar metallicities. This confirms the recently identified correlation between cold debris discs and low-mass planets in the context of planet formation by core accretion.
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8.
  • Acke, B., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel images of Fomalhaut An extrasolar Kuiper belt at the height of its dynamical activity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 540, s. Article Number: A125 -
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Fomalhaut is a young (2 +/- 1 x 10(8) years), nearby (7.7 pc), 2 M-circle dot star that is suspected to harbor an infant planetary system, interspersed with one or more belts of dusty debris. Aims. We present far-infrared images obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory with an angular resolution between 5.7 '' and 36.7 '' at wavelengths between 70 mu m and 500 mu m. The images show the main debris belt in great detail. Even at high spatial resolution, the belt appears smooth. The region in between the belt and the central star is not devoid of material; thermal emission is observed here as well. Also at the location of the star, excess emission is detected. We aim to construct a consistent image of the Fomalhaut system. Methods. We use a dynamical model together with radiative-transfer tools to derive the parameters of the debris disk. We include detailed models of the interaction of the dust grains with radiation, for both the radiation pressure and the temperature determination. Comparing these models to the spatially resolved temperature information contained in the images allows us to place strong constraints on the presence of grains that will be blown out of the system by radiation pressure. We use this to derive the dynamical parameters of the system. Results. The appearance of the belt points toward a remarkably active system in which dust grains are produced at a very high rate by a collisional cascade in a narrow region filled with dynamically excited planetesimals. Dust particles with sizes below the blow-out size are abundantly present. The equivalent of 2000 one-km-sized comets are destroyed every day, out of a cometary reservoir amounting to 110 Earth masses. From comparison of their scattering and thermal properties, we find evidence that the dust grains are fluffy aggregates, which indicates a cometary origin. The excess emission at the location of the star may be produced by hot dust with a range of temperatures, but may also be due to gaseous free-free emission from a stellar wind.
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9.
  • de Vries, B. L., et al. (författare)
  • Comet-like mineralogy of olivine crystals in an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 490:7418, s. 74-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some planetary systems harbour debris disks containing planetesimals such as asteroids and comets(1). Collisions between such bodies produce small dust particles(2), the spectral features of which reveal their composition and, hence, that of their parent bodies. A measurement of the composition of olivine crystals (Mg2-2xFe2xSiO4) has been done for the protoplanetary disk HD 100546 (refs 3, 4) and for olivine crystals in the warm inner parts of planetary systems. The latter compares well with the iron-rich olivine in asteroids(5,6) (x approximate to 0.29). In the cold outskirts of the beta Pictoris system, an analogue to the young Solar System, olivine crystals were detected(7) but their composition remained undetermined, leaving unknown how the composition of the bulk of Solar System cometary olivine grains compares with that of extrasolar comets(8,9). Here we report the detection of the 69-micrometre-wavelength band of olivine crystals in the spectrum of beta Pictoris. Because the disk is optically thin, we can associate the crystals with an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt a distance of 15-45 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Sun-Earth distance), determine their magnesium-rich composition (x = 0.01 +/- 0.001) and show that they make up 3.6 +/- 1.0 per cent of the total dust mass. These values are strikingly similar to those for the dust emitted by the most primitive comets in the Solar System(8-10), even though beta Pictoris is more massive and more luminous and has a different planetary system architecture.
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10.
  • Ertel, S., et al. (författare)
  • A peculiar class of debris disks from Herschel/DUNES - A steep fall off in the far infrared
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The existence of debris disks around old main sequence stars is usually explained by continuous replenishment of small dust grains through collisions from a reservoir of larger objects. Aims. We present photometric data of debris disks around HIP 103389 (HD199260), HIP 107350 (HNPeg, HD206860), and HIP 114948 (HD219482), obtained in the context of our Herschel open time key program DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Methods. We used Herschel/PACS to detect the thermal emission of the three debris disks with a 3 sigma sensitivity of a few mJy at 100 mu m and 160 mu m. In addition, we obtained Herschel/PACS photometric data at 70 mu m for HIP 103389. These observations are complemented by a large variety of optical to far-infrared photometric data. Two different approaches are applied to reduce the Herschel data to investigate the impact of data reduction on the photometry. We fit analytical models to the available spectral energy distribution (SED) data using the fitting method of simulated thermal annealing as well as a classical grid search method. Results. The SEDs of the three disks potentially exhibit an unusually steep decrease at wavelengths >= 70 mu m. We investigate the significance of the peculiar shape of these SEDs and the impact on models of the disks provided it is real. Using grain compositions that have been applied successfully for modeling of many other debris disks, our modeling reveals that such a steep decrease of the SEDs in the long wavelength regime is inconsistent with a power-law exponent of the grain size distribution -3.5 expected from a standard equilibrium collisional cascade. In contrast, a steep grain size distribution or, alternatively an upper grain size in the range of few tens of micrometers are implied. This suggests that a very distinct range of grain sizes would dominate the thermal emission of such disks. However, we demonstrate that the understanding of the data of faint sources obtained with Herschel is still incomplete and that the significance of our results depends on the version of the data reduction pipeline used. Conclusions. A new mechanism to produce the dust in the presented debris disks, deviations from the conditions required for a standard equilibrium collisional cascade (grain size exponent of -3.5), and/or significantly different dust properties would be necessary to explain the potentially steep SED shape of the three debris disks presented.
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