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Sökning: WFRF:(Pizzari T)

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  • Lindsay, Willow, 1980, et al. (författare)
  • Endless forms of sexual selection
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - : PeerJ Inc. - 2167-8359. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, the field of sexual selection has exploded, with advances in theoretical and empirical research complementing each other in exciting ways. This perspective piece is the product of a "stock-taking'' workshop on sexual selection and sexual conflict. Our aim is to identify and deliberate on outstanding questions and to stimulate discussion rather than provide a comprehensive overview of the entire field. These questions are organized into four thematic sections we deem essential to the field. First we focus on the evolution of mate choice and mating systems. Variation in mate quality can generate both competition and choice in the opposite sex, with implications for the evolution of mating systems. Limitations on mate choice may dictate the importance of direct vs. indirect benefits in mating decisions and consequently, mating systems, especially with regard to polyandry. Second, we focus on how sender and receiver mechanisms shape signal design. Mediation of honest signal content likely depends on integration of temporally variable social and physiological costs that are challenging to measure. We view the neuroethology of sensory and cognitive receiver biases as the main key to signal form and the 'aesthetic sense' proposed by Darwin. Since a receiver bias is sufficient to both initiate and drive ornament or armament exaggeration, without a genetically correlated or even coevolving receiver, this may be the appropriate 'null model' of sexual selection. Thirdly, we focus on the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits. Despite advances in modern molecular techniques, the number and identity of genes underlying performance, display and secondary sexual traits remains largely unknown. In-depth investigations into the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in the context of long-term field studies will reveal constraints and trajectories of sexually selected trait evolution. Finally, we focus on sexual selection and conflict as drivers of speciation. Population divergence and speciation are often influenced by an interplay between sexual and natural selection. The extent to which sexual selection promotes or counteracts population divergence may vary depending on the genetic architecture of traits as well as the covariance between mating competition and local adaptation. Additionally, post-copulatory processes, such as selection against heterospecific sperm, may influence the importance of sexual selection in speciation. We propose that efforts to resolve these four themes can catalyze conceptual progress in the field of sexual selection, and we offer potential avenues of research to advance this progress.
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  • Wright, Dominic, et al. (författare)
  • Onset of Sexual Maturity in Female Chickens is Genetically Linked to Loci Associated with Fecundity and a Sexual Ornament
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Reproduction in domestic animals. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0936-6768 .- 1439-0531. ; 47:SI, s. 31-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Onset of sexual maturation is a trait of extreme importance both evolutionarily and economically. Unsurprisingly therefore, domestication has acted to reduce the time to sexual maturation in a variety of animals, including the chicken. In comparison with wild progenitor chickens [the Red Junglefowl (RJF)], domestic layer hens attain maturity approximately 20% earlier. In addition, domestic layers also possess larger combs (a sexual ornament), produce more eggs and have denser bones. A large quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis (n = 377) was performed using an F2 intercross between a White Leghorn layer breed and a RJF population, with onset of sexual maturity measured and mapped to three separate loci. This cross has already been analysed for comb mass, egg production and bone allocation. Onset of sexual maturity significantly correlated with comb mass, whilst the genetic architecture for sexual maturity and comb mass overlapped at all three loci. For two of these loci, the QTL for sexual maturity and comb mass were statistically indistinguishable from pleiotropy, suggesting that the alleles that increase comb mass also decrease onset of sexual maturity.
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  • Lindsay, Willow R, et al. (författare)
  • Endless forms of sexual selection
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The field of sexual selection has burgeoned with research into trait evolution in the context of ecology, sociality, phylogeny, natural selection, and sexual conflict. This paper is the product of a “stock-taking” workshop; our aim is to stimulate discussion, not to provide an exhaustive review. We identify outstanding questions organized into four thematic sections.1) Evolution of mate choice and mating systems. Variation in mate quality can generate mating competition and choice in either sex with implications for the evolution of mating systems. Limitations on mate choice may dictate the importance of direct vs. indirect benefits in mating decisions and consequently, mating systems. Specifically, polyandry evolves in response to the strength of pre- vs. post-copulatory selection. The evolution of polyandry may be related to diversity of pathogens and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes. MHC genes are also potential cues of kinship in avoidance of inbreeding. The balance between inbreeding avoidance and inclusive fitness in mating decisions deserves greater attention.2) Sender and receiver mechanisms shaping signal design. Mediation of honest signal content likely depends on integration of temporally variable social and physiological costs that are a challenge to measure. The neuroethology of sensory and cognitive receiver biases is the main key to signal form and the ‘aesthetic sense’ proposed by Darwin. Since a receiver bias is sufficient to both start and drive ornament or armament exaggeration, without a genetically correlated or even coevolving receiver, this may be the appropriate ‘null model’ of sexual selection.3) Genetic architecture of sexual selection. Despite advances in modern molecular techniques, the number and identity of genes underlying performance remain largely unknown. A combination of genomic techniques and long-term field studies that reveal ecological correlates of reproductive success is warranted. In-depth investigations into the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism will reveal constraints and trajectories of sexually selected trait evolution.4) Sexual selection and conflict as drivers of speciation. Population divergence and speciation is often driven by an interplay between sexual and natural selection. To what extent sexual selection promotes or counteracts population divergence may differ depending on the genetic architecture of traits as well as covariance between mating competition and local adaptation, if traits have multiple functions and if sensory systems used in mate choice are locally adapted. Also, post-copulatory processes, e.g. selection against heterospecific sperm, may influence the importance of sexual selection. Sexual conflict can shape speciation processes, since mate choice selection on females can restrict gene flow whereas selection on males is permissive.We propose that efforts to resolve these four themes can catalyze conceptual progress in the field of sexual selection.
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  • Pizzari, T., et al. (författare)
  • A novel test of the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis reveals independent components of fertility
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - 0962-8436 .- 1471-2970. ; 271:1534, s. 51-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis predicts that male sexual ornaments signal fertilizing efficiency and that the coevolution of male ornaments and female preference for such ornaments is driven by female pursuit of fertility benefits. In addition, directional testicular asymmetry frequently observed in birds has been suggested to reflect fertilizing efficiency and to covary with ornament expression. However, the idea of a phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and fertilizing efficiency is often tested in populations where environmental effects mask the underlying genetic associations between ornaments and fertilizing efficiency implied by this idea. Here, we adopt a novel design, which increases genetic diversity through the crossing of two divergent populations while controlling for environmental effects, to test: (i) the phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and both, gonadal (testicular mass) and gametic (sperm quality) components of fertilizing efficiency, and (ii) the extent to which these components are phenotypically integrated in the fowl, Gallus gallus. We show that consistent with theory, the testosterone-dependent expression of a male ornament, the comb, predicted testicular mass. However, despite their functional inter-dependence, testicular mass and sperm quality were not phenotypically integrated. Consistent with this result, males of one parental population invested more in testicular and comb mass, whereas males of the other parental population had higher sperm quality. We found no evidence that directional testicular asymmetry covaried with ornament expression. These results shed new light on the evolutionary relationship between male fertilizing efficiency and ornaments. Although testosterone-dependent ornaments may covary with testicular mass and thus reflect sperm production rate, the lack of phenotypic integration between gonadal and gametic traits reveals that the expression of an ornament is unlikely to reflect the overall fertilizing efficiency of a male.
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