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Sökning: WFRF:(Pomati Francesco)

  • Resultat 1-5 av 5
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  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • A single pulse of diffuse contaminants alters the size distribution of natural phytoplankton communities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 683, s. 578-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The presence of a multitude of bioactive organic pollutants collectively classified as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwaters is of concern, considering that ecological assessments of their potential impacts on natural systems are still scarce. In this field experiment we tested whether a single pulse exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are commonly found in European inland waters, can influence the size distributions of natural lake phytoplankton communities. Size is one of the most influential determinants of community structure and functioning, particularly in planktonic communities and food webs. Using an in-situ microcosm approach, phytoplankton communities in two lakes with different nutrient levels (mesotrophic and eutrophic) were exposed to a concentration gradient of the PPCPs mixture at five levels. We tested whether sub-lethal PPCPs doses affect the scaling of organisms' abundances with their size, and the slope of these size spectra, which describe changes in the abundances of small relative to large phytoplankton. Our results showed that a large proportion (approximately 80%) of the dataset followed a power-law distribution, thus suggesting evidence of scale invariance of abundances, as expected in steady state ecosystems. PPCPs were however found to induce significant changes in the size spectra and community structure of natural phytoplankton assemblages. The two highest treatment levels of PPCPs were associated with decreased abundance of the most dominant size class (nano-phytoplankton: 2-5 mu m), leading to a flattening of the size spectra slope. These results suggest that a pulse exposure to PPCPs induce changes that potentially lead to unsteady ecosystem states and cascading effects in the aquatic food webs, by favoring larger non-edible algae at the expense of small edible species. We propose higher susceptibility due to higher surface to volume ratio in small species as the likely cause of these structural changes.
  • Baho, Didier L., et al. (författare)
  • Resilience of Natural Phytoplankton Communities to Pulse Disturbances from Micropollutant Exposure and Vertical Mixing
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268 .- 1552-8618. ; 38:10, s. 2197-2208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Freshwaters are increasingly exposed to complex mixtures of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from municipal wastewater, which are known to alter freshwater communities' structure and functioning. However, their interaction with other disturbances and whether their combined effects can impact ecological resilience (i.e., the ability of a system to tolerate disturbances without altering the system's original structure and processes) remain unexplored. Using in situ mesocosms in 2 lakes with different nutrient levels (mesotrophic and eutrophic), we assessed whether a pulse exposure to sublethal concentrations of 12 PPCPs affects the ecological resilience of natural phytoplankton communities that experienced an abrupt environmental change involving the destabilization of the water column through mixing. Such mixing events are predicted to increase as the effects of climate change unfold, leading to more frequent storms, which disrupt stratification in lakes and force communities to restructure. We assessed their combined effects on community metrics (biomass, species richness, and composition) and their relative resilience using 4 indicators (cross-scale, within-scale, aggregation length, and gap length), inferred from phytoplankton communities by discontinuity analysis. The mixing disturbance alone had negligible effects on the community metrics, but when combined with chemical contaminants significant changes were measured: reducing total biomass, species richness, and altered community composition of phytoplankton. Once these changes occurred, they persisted until the end of the experiment (day 20), when the communities' structures from the 2 highest exposure levels diverged from the controls. The resilience indicators were not affected by PPCPs but differed significantly between lakes, with lower resilience found in the eutrophic lake. Thus, PPCPs can significantly alter community structures and reinforce mechanisms that maintain ecosystems in a degraded state.
  • Brentrup, Jennifer A., et al. (författare)
  • The potential of high-frequency profiling to assess vertical and seasonal patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in lakes : an extension of the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: INLAND WATERS. - 2044-2041 .- 2044-205X. ; 6:4, s. 565-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of high-frequency sensors on profiling buoys to investigate physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes is increasing rapidly. Profiling buoys with automated winches and sensors that collect high-frequency chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) profiles in 11 lakes in the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) allowed the study of the vertical and temporal distribution of ChlF, including the formation of subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SSCM). The effectiveness of 3 methods for sampling phytoplankton distributions in lakes, including (1) manual profiles, (2) single-depth buoys, and (3) profiling buoys were assessed. High-frequency ChlF surface data and profiles were compared to predictions from the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model. The depth-integrated ChlF dynamics measured by the profiling buoy data revealed a greater complexity that neither conventional sampling nor the generalized PEG model captured. Conventional sampling techniques would have missed SSCM in 7 of 11 study lakes. Although surface-only ChlF data underestimated average water column ChlF, at times by nearly 2-fold in 4 of the lakes, overall there was a remarkable similarity between surface and mean water column data. Contrary to the PEG model's proposed negligible role for physical control of phytoplankton during the growing season, thermal structure and light availability were closely associated with ChlF seasonal depth distribution. Thus, an extension of the PEG model is proposed, with a new conceptual framework that explicitly includes physical metrics to better predict SSCM formation in lakes and highlight when profiling buoys are especially informative.
  • Pankratova, Nadezda, et al. (författare)
  • Potentiometric sensing array for monitoring aquatic systems
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science. - 2050-7887 .- 2050-7895. ; 17:5, s. 906-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since aquatic environments are highly heterogeneous and dynamic, there is the need in aquatic ecosystem monitoring to replace traditional approaches based on periodical sampling followed by laboratory analysis with new automated techniques that allow one to obtain monitoring data with high spatial and temporal resolution. We report here on a potentiometric sensing array based on polymeric membrane materials for the continuous monitoring of nutrients and chemical species relevant for the carbon cycle in freshwater ecosystems. The proposed setup operates autonomously, with measurement, calibration, fluidic control and acquisition triggers all integrated into a self-contained instrument. Experimental validation was performed on an automated monitoring platform on lake Greifensee (Switzerland) using potentiometric sensors selective for hydrogen ions, carbonate, calcium, nitrate and ammonium. Results from the field tests were compared with those obtained by traditional laboratory analysis. A linear correlation between calcium and nitrate activities measured with ISEs and relevant concentrations measured in the laboratory was found, with the slopes corresponding to apparent single ion activity coefficients and. Good correlation between pH values measured with ISE and CTD probes (SD = 0.2 pH) suggests adequate reliability of the methodology. 
  • Stockwell, Jason D., et al. (författare)
  • Storm impacts on phytoplankton community dynamics in lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : WILEY. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:5, s. 2756-2784
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many regions across the globe, extreme weather events such as storms have increased in frequency, intensity, and duration due to climate change. Ecological theory predicts that such extreme events should have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function. High winds and precipitation associated with storms can affect lakes via short-term runoff events from watersheds and physical mixing of the water column. In addition, lakes connected to rivers and streams will also experience flushing due to high flow rates. Although we have a well-developed understanding of how wind and precipitation events can alter lake physical processes and some aspects of biogeochemical cycling, our mechanistic understanding of the emergent responses of phytoplankton communities is poor. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis that identifies how storms interact with lake and watershed attributes and their antecedent conditions to generate changes in lake physical and chemical environments. Such changes can restructure phytoplankton communities and their dynamics, as well as result in altered ecological function (e.g., carbon, nutrient and energy cycling) in the short- and long-term. We summarize the current understanding of storm-induced phytoplankton dynamics, identify knowledge gaps with a systematic review of the literature, and suggest future research directions across a gradient of lake types and environmental conditions.
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  • Resultat 1-5 av 5

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