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Sökning: WFRF:(Potgieter A)

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4.
  • Adriani, O., et al. (författare)
  • Time Dependence of the Electron and Positron Components of the Cosmic Radiation Measured by the PAMELA Experiment between July 2006 and December 2015
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 116:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons are a unique probe of the propagation of cosmic rays as well as of the nature and distribution of particle sources in our Galaxy. Recent measurements of these particles are challenging our basic understanding of the mechanisms of production, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. Particularly striking are the differences between the low energy results collected by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments and older measurements pointing to sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation of cosmic-ray spectra. The PAMELA experiment has been measuring the time variation of the positron and electron intensity at Earth from July 2006 to December 2015 covering the period for the minimum of solar cycle 23 (2006-2009) until the middle of the maximum of solar cycle 24, through the polarity reversal of the heliospheric magnetic field which took place between 2013 and 2014. The positron to electron ratio measured in this time period clearly shows a sign-charge dependence of the solar modulation introduced by particle drifts. These results provide the first clear and continuous observation of how drift effects on solar modulation have unfolded with time from solar minimum to solar maximum and their dependence on the particle rigidity and the cyclic polarity of the solar magnetic field.
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5.
  • Munini, R., et al. (författare)
  • Short-term variation in the galactic cosmic ray intensity measured with the PAMELA experiment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - : Sissa Medialab Srl.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New results on the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) short-term intensity variation associated with Forbush decrease and co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) measured by the PAMELA instrument between November 2006 and March 2007 are presented. Most of the past measurements on Forbush decrease events were carried out with neutron monitor detector. This tecnique allows only indirect detection of the overall GCR intensity over an integrated energy range. For the first time, thanks to the unique features of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer, the Forbush decrease associated with the December 13th coronal mass ejection (CME) was studied in a wide rigidity range (0.4 - 20 GV) and for different species of GCRs detected directly in space. Using GCR protons, the amplitude and the recovery time of the Forbush decrease were studied for ten rigidity interval with a temporal resolution of one day. For comparison the helium and the electron intensity over time were also studied. The temporal evolution of the helium and proton intensity was found in good agreement while the electrons show, on average, a faster recovery time. This was interpreted as a charge-sign dependence introduced by drift motion experienced by the low rigidity (< 5 GV) GCRs during their propagation through the heliosphere. Moreover a clear 13.5 days cyclical variation was observed in the GCR proton intensity after the Forbush decrease. This phenomena could be interpreted as an effect of prominent structures of compressed plasma in the solar wind, i.e. CIRs, or to the latitudinal gradient due to the crossing of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). 
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6.
  • Munini, R., et al. (författare)
  • Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays electrons and positrons over the 23rd solar minimum with the pamela experiment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd International Cosmic Rays Conference, ICRC 2013. - : Sociedade Brasileira de Fisica. - 9788589064293
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The satellite-borne PAMELA experiment has been continuously collecting data since 15th June 2006, when it was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome to detect the charged component of cosmic rays over a wide energy range and with an unprecedented statistics. The apparatus design is particularly suited for particle and antiparticle identification. The satellite quasi-polar orbit, with an inclination of 70 degrees, allows particles to be measure down to 100 MeV/n. This makes the instrument suited for the investigation of phenomena related to galactic cosmic ray solar modulation in the inner heliosphere. Data for oppositely charged particles were collected from 2006 to 2009, during the A< 0 solar minimum of solar cycle 23. The time and rigidity dependence of galactic cosmic ray electron and positron fluxes were measured. These fluxes provide important information for the study of charge dependent solar modulation effects. 
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7.
  • Adriani, O., et al. (författare)
  • Time Dependence Of The Proton Flux Measured By Pamela During The 2006 July-2009 December Solar Minimum
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 765:2, s. 91-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays carry fundamental information regarding their origin and propagation. These spectra, when measured near Earth, are significantly affected by the solar magnetic field. A comprehensive description of the cosmic radiation must therefore include the transport and modulation of cosmic rays inside the heliosphere. During the end of the last decade, the Sun underwent a peculiarly long quiet phase well suited to study modulation processes. In this paper we present proton spectra measured from 2006 July to 2009 December by PAMELA. The large collected statistics of protons allowed the time variation to be followed on a nearly monthly basis down to 400 MV. Data are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation.
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8.
  • Di Felice, V., et al. (författare)
  • Solar modulation of galactic hydrogen and helium over the 23rd solar minimum with the PAMELA experiment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd International Cosmic Rays Conference, ICRC 2013. - : Sociedade Brasileira de Fisica. - 9788589064293
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PAMELA has been orbiting the Earth for more than six years, gathering data on solar, galactic and trapped cosmic rays during the time of the last solar minimum. The apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail catcher scintillator and a neutron detector. The combination of these devices allows charged particle and antiparticle identification over a wide energy range and with an unprecedented precision. The quasi-polar orbit of the instrument, with an inclination of 70 degrees, makes it possible to measure low energy particles starting from about 100 MeV/n. In this work we present the time and rigidity dependence of the galactic proton and helium fluxes over the first 4 years of operation during the A < 0 solar minimum of solar cycle 23. 
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9.
  • Menn, W., et al. (författare)
  • Lithium and beryllium isotopes in the pamela-experiment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - : Proceedings of Science (PoS).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On the 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome and it has been collecting data since July 2006. The apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anti-coincidence system, a shower tail counter scintillator and a neutron detector. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission are the measurement of the antiprotons and positrons spectra in cosmic rays, the hunt for antinuclei as well as the determination of light nuclei fluxes from hydrogen to oxygen in a wide energy range and with very high statistics. In this paper the identification capability for lithium and beryllium isotopes for two different techniques are presented, combining the rigidity measurement from the magnetic spectrometer with the velocity information derived either with the time-of-flight or with multiple dE/dx measurements in the calorimeter. Preliminary results of the isotopic ratios will be presented.
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10.
  • Menn, W., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the isotopic composition of hydrogen and helium nuclei in cosmic rays with the pamela-experiment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - : Proceedings of Science (PoS).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium (1H,2H,3He,4He) isotopic composition between 100 MeV/n and 1.4 GeV/n has been measured with the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The rare isotopes 2H and 3He in cosmic rays are believed to originate mainly from the interaction of high energy protons and helium with the galactic interstellar medium. The energy spectrum of these components carries fundamental information regarding the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy which are competitive with those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as B/C. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 1100 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 1400 MeV/n for helium isotopes using two different detector systems over the 23rd solar minimum from July 2006 to December 2007.
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