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Sökning: WFRF:(Poulsen Pernille)

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1.
  • Nilsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:9, s. 2962-2976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution to the genome-wide DNA methylation variability in twins. Differences in methylation between monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D were subsequently modest. However, 15,627 sites, representing 7,046 genes including PPARG, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, and IRS1, showed differential DNA methylation in adipose tissue from unrelated subjects with T2D compared with control subjects. A total of 1,410 of these sites also showed differential DNA methylation in the twins discordant for T2D. For the differentially methylated sites, the heritability estimate was 0.28. We also identified copy number variants (CNVs) in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. Taken together, subjects with T2D exhibit multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue relevant to the development of the disease.
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2.
  • Koeck, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • A common variant in TFB1M is associated with reduced insulin secretion and increased future risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 13:1, s. 80-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 2 diabetes (T2D) evolves when insulin secretion fails. Insulin release from the pancreatic β cell is controlled by mitochondrial metabolism, which translates fluctuations in blood glucose into metabolic coupling signals. We identified a common variant (rs950994) in the human transcription factor B1 mitochondrial (TFB1M) gene associated with reduced insulin secretion, elevated postprandial glucose levels, and future risk of T2D. Because islet TFB1M mRNA levels were lower in carriers of the risk allele and correlated with insulin secretion, we examined mice heterozygous for Tfb1m deficiency. These mice displayed lower expression of TFB1M in islets and impaired mitochondrial function and released less insulin in response to glucose in vivo and in vitro. Reducing TFB1M mRNA and protein in clonal β cells by RNA interference impaired complexes of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Consequently, nutrient-stimulated ATP generation was reduced, leading to perturbed insulin secretion. We conclude that a deficiency in TFB1M and impaired mitochondrial function contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D.
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3.
  • Parikh, Hemang, et al. (författare)
  • TXNIP regulates peripheral glucose metabolism in humans
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 4:5, s. 868-879
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Methods and Findings We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies with genome-wide expression profiling to identify thioredoxin interacting protein ( TXNIP) as a gene whose expression is powerfully suppressed by insulin yet stimulated by glucose. In healthy individuals, its expression was inversely correlated to total body measures of glucose uptake. Forced expression of TXNIP in cultured adipocytes significantly reduced glucose uptake, while silencing with RNA interference in adipocytes and in skeletal muscle enhanced glucose uptake, confirming that the gene product is also a regulator of glucose uptake. TXNIP expression is consistently elevated in the muscle of prediabetics and diabetics, although in a panel of 4,450 Scandinavian individuals, we found no evidence for association between common genetic variation in the TXNIP gene and T2DM. Conclusions TXNIP regulates both insulin-dependent and insulin- independent pathways of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. Combined with recent studies that have implicated TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cell glucose toxicity, our data suggest that TXNIP might play a key role in defective glucose homeostasis preceding overt T2DM.
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4.
  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
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5.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A link between GIP and osteopontin in adipose tissue and insulin resistance.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 62:6, s. 2088-2094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophagederived cytokine osteopontin in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate osteopontin (OPN) expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13±}0.04 vs 0.04±}0.01, P<0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r=-0.24, P=0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with lower amount of the exon 9 containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A-allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone, but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of GIPR rs10423928 A-allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.
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6.
  • Banasik, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • The FOXO3A rs2802292 G-Allele Associates with Improved Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Skeletal Muscle-FOXO3A mRNA Expression in Twins.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 96, s. 119-124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 has been associated with longevity. We aimed to investigate whether a phenotype related to healthy metabolic aging could be identified in individuals carrying the longevity-associated FOXO3A rs2802292 G allele. Research Design and Methods: rs2802292 was genotyped in a phenotypically well-characterized population of young and elderly twins (n = 190) and in the population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 5768). All participants underwent oral glucose tolerance tests, and the twin population was additionally examined with an iv glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Basal and insulin-stimulated FOXO3A mRNA expression was assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies from the twin population. Results: In the twin sample, carriers of the minor G allele of rs2802292 showed reduced fasting plasma insulin [per allele effect (β) = -13% (-24; -1) (95% confidence interval), P = 0.03] and lower incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -14% (-23; -), P = 0.005]. The G allele was associated with increased peripheral insulin action [glucose disposal rate clamp, β = 0.85 mg·kgfat-free mass(-1) · min(-1) (0.049; 1.64), P = 0.04] and lower hepatic insulin resistance index [β = -13% (-25; -1), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, carriers of the G allele had increased basal FOXO3A mRNA expression in skeletal muscle compared with T-allele carriers [β = 16% (0; 33), P = 0.047]. In the Inter99 sample, we found an association with reduced incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -3% (-5; -0.07), P = 0.04], but this association was not significant after adjustment for body mass index. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 is associated with enhanced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in our small twin cohort, which may be mediated through increased FOXO3A mRNA expression, although no major metabolic impact of rs2802292 was found in the large Inter99 cohort.
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7.
  • Brøns, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation and Gene Expression of PPARGC1A in Human Muscle Is Influenced by High-Fat Overfeeding in a Birth-Weight-Dependent Manner.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 95, s. 3048-3056
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Low birth weight (LBW) and unhealthy diets are risk factors of metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic, nongenetic, and epigenetic data propose a role of the key metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1alpha (PPARGC1A) in the development of T2D. Objective: Our objective was to investigate gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A and coregulated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat diets. Design, Subjects, and Main Outcome Measures: Twenty young healthy men with LBW and 26 matched NBW controls were studied after 5 d high-fat overfeeding (+50% calories) and after a control diet in a randomized manner. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed and skeletal muscle biopsies excised. DNA methylation and gene expression were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Results: When challenged with high-fat overfeeding, LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance and reduced PPARGC1A and OXPHOS (P < 0.05) gene expression. PPARGC1A methylation was significantly higher in LBW subjects (P = 0.0002) during the control diet. However, PPARGC1A methylation increased in only NBW subjects after overfeeding in a reversible manner. DNA methylation of PPARGC1A did not correlate with mRNA expression. Conclusions: LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance and decreased gene expression of PPARGC1A and OXPHOS genes when challenged with fat overfeeding. The extent to which our finding of a constitutively increased DNA methylation in the PPARGC1A promoter in LBW subjects may contribute needs to be determined. We provide the first experimental support in humans that DNA methylation induced by overfeeding is reversible.
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10.
  • Friedrichsen, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Dissociation between Skeletal Muscle Inhibitor-{kappa}B Kinase/Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Pathway Activity and Insulin Sensitivity in Nondiabetic Twins.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 95:1, s. 414-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Several studies suggest a link between increased activity of the inflammatory inhibitor-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) pathway in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. Objective: We aimed to study the regulation of skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity as well as the association with glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Methods: The study population included a metabolically well-characterized cohort of young and elderly predominantly nondiabetic twins (n = 181). Inhibitor-kappaBbeta (IkappaBbeta) protein levels are negatively associated with IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity and were used to evaluate pathway activity with p65 levels included as loading control. This indirect measure for IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity was validated by a p65 binding assay. Results: Evaluating the effects of heritability, age, sex, obesity, aerobic capacity, and several hormonal factors (eg insulin and TNF-alpha), only sex and age were significant predictors of IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio (28% decreased ratio in the elderly, P < 0.01, and 49% increased in males P < 0.01). IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio was unrelated to peripheral insulin sensitivity (P = 0.51) and in accordance with this also unrelated to proximal insulin signaling (P = 0.81). Although no association was seen with plasma glucose after oral glucose challenge, there was a tendency for lower IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio (adjusted for age and sex) in subjects with impaired as opposed to normal glucose tolerance (P = 0.055). Conclusions: Altogether the subtle elevated IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity seen in glucose-intolerant subjects suggests that IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activation may be secondary to impaired glucose tolerance and that skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity is unlikely to play any major role in the control of skeletal muscle insulin action in nondiabetic subjects.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa

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