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  • Lötvall, Jan, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • West Sweden Asthma Study: Prevalence trends over the last 18 years argue no recent increase in asthma.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Respiratory research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1465-993X. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: Asthma prevalence has increased over the last fifty years, but the more recent changes have not been conclusively determined. Studies in children indicate that a plateau in the prevalence of asthma may have been reached, but this has not yet been confirmed in adults. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence of asthma in adults is approximately 7-10% in different parts of the western world. We have now performed a large-scale epidemiological evaluation of the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults between the ages of 16-75 in West Sweden. Thirty thousand randomly chosen individuals were sent a detailed questionnaire focusing on asthma and respiratory symptoms, as well possible risk factors. Sixty-two percent of the contacted individuals responded to the questionnaire. Asthma prevalence, defined as asthma diagnosed by a physician, was 8.3%. Moreover, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was lower compared to previous studies. The most common respiratory symptom was any wheeze (16.6%) followed by sputum production (13.3%). In comparison with studies performed 18 years ago, the prevalence of asthma has not increased, and the prevalence of most respiratory symptoms has decreased. Therefore, our data argues that the continued increase in asthma prevalence that has been observed over the last half century is over.
  • Nwaru, Bright I, et al. (författare)
  • Furry Animal Allergen Component Sensitization and Clinical Outcomes in Adult Asthma and Rhinitis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-2198 .- 2213-2201. ; 7:4, s. 1230-1238.e4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sensitization to allergen components has been linked to asthma in children, but studies in adults are lacking.Objective: To study the relation of sensitization to furry animal allergen components to risk of asthma, rhinitis, and markers of asthma severity in adults.Methods: From the West Sweden Asthma Study, a random population-representative sample of adults aged 16 to 75 years, 2006 participants were clinically examined; 1872 were analyzed for serum IgE level to a mix of aeroallergens. Those with an IgE level of more than 0.35 kUA/L to cat, dog, or horse allergen components were analyzed for specific cat (Felis domesticus [Fel d 1, Fel d 2, and Fel d 4]), dog (Canis familiaris [Can f 1, Can f 2, Can f 3, and Can f 5]), and horse (Equus caballus [Equ c 1]) allergen components. We defined monosensitization, double sensitization, and polysensitization (>2 components) patterns and applied cluster analysis to derive distinct sensitization clusters.Results: Sensitization to each allergen component, lipocalins, each sensitization pattern, and each sensitization cluster (nonsensitized, Fel d 1–driven sensitized, and multisensitized clusters) was associated with substantial increased risk of asthma, rhinitis, concomitant asthma and rhinitis, and Asthma Control Test–controlled asthma. Fel d 1, Can f 1, Can f 2, Can f 3, polysensitization, and multisensitized cluster were further associated with increased fractional exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophil levels, but with lower PD20 methacoline (provocative dose of methacholine causing a 20% drop in FEV1) values. There was no association with asthma exacerbations, FEV1 predicted values, emergency visits or regular oral steroid use, and neutrophil levels.Conclusions: Sensitization to furry animal allergen components is an important predictor of asthma, rhinitis, and markers of asthma severity with increased blood eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and airway hyperreactivity.
  • Nwaru, Bright, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of sensitization to furry animal allergen components in adult asthma and indicators of severity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Whilst the role of allergen component sensitization in asthma has been investigated in children, studies in adults are lacking.Aim: To study the relationship between patterns of sensitization to furry animal allergen components and asthma, concomitant asthma/allergic rhinitis, and indicators of asthma severity in a population-representative adult sample.Methods: From the West Sweden Asthma Study, 2006 were clinically phenotyped, of which 1872 had Phadiatop analyzed. Those with IgE>0.35 kUA/L were then analyzed for specific cat (Fel d 1, 2, & 4), dog (Can f 1, 2, 3, & 5), and horse (Equ c 1) allergen components. Sensitization patterns were defined as mono-, double-, and poly-sensitization (i.e. >2 components). Outcomes were current asthma, current allergic rhinitis, concomitant asthma/rhinitis, and indicators of asthma severity.Results: Mono-, double-, and poly-sensitization to furry animal components were each associated with a substantial increased risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, concomitant asthma/rhinitis, and ACT well-controlled asthma. Poly-sensitization was further associated with increased FeNo (β 0.43, 95%CI 0.18 to 0.68) and eosinophil (β 0.26, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.50) levels, and lower PD20 methacoline values (β -0.57, 95%CI -0.99 to -0.15). Sensitization patterns were not associated with asthma exacerbations, FEV1 values, emergency visits or oral steroid use, and neutrophil levels.Conclusion: Patterns of sensitization to furry animal allergen components are a good predictor of clinical outcomes and indicators of asthma severity in adults, but only poly-sensitization had impact on eosinophilic inflammatory markers of severity.
  • Rönmark, Erik P, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Different risk factor patterns for adult asthma, rhinitis and eczema : results from West Sweden Asthma Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - : Wiley. - 2045-7022 .- 2045-7022. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases including asthma, rhinitis and eczema have increased in the second half of the past century. This has been well studied among children and adolescents but with the exception of asthma to a much lesser extent in adults. The adult risk factor pattern of atopic diseases, in particular of eczema, and their relation to allergic sensitization are yet to be fully elucidated. Studies among adults that have compared the risk factor pattern for these conditions in the same material are very few. The objective of this study was to compare the risk factor patterns for asthma, rhinitis and eczema in a randomly selected adult population.METHODS: A questionnaire survey on atopic diseases was dispatched by mail to 30,000 randomly selected individuals in West Sweden aged 16-75 years and 62 % participated. A subgroup of 2000 individuals was selected for clinical examinations including blood sampling for specific serum Immunoglobulin E to common airborne allergens and 1172 attended.RESULTS: The prevalence of current asthma was 11.8 %, current rhinitis 42.8 %, current eczema 13.5 and 2.3 % had all three conditions while 13.9 % had at least two conditions. No mutual risk factor was identified for all three conditions. Allergic sensitization was a strong risk factor for current asthma (OR 4.1 CI 2.7-6.3) and current rhinitis (OR 5.1 CI 3.8-6.9) but not so for current eczema. Obesity was a risk factor for current asthma and current rhinitis, while farm childhood decreased the risk for current asthma and current rhinitis. Occupational exposure to gas dust or fumes and female sex was associated with an increased risk of current asthma and current eczema.CONCLUSIONS: There are different risk factor patterns for asthma, rhinitis and eczema in adults but some risk factors are overlapping between some of the conditions. The effect of mutable risk factors should be assessed further in longitudinal studies.
  • Rönmark, Erik P, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Eczema among adults: prevalence, risk factors and relation to airway diseases. Results from a large-scale population survey in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Dermatology. - : Wiley. - 0007-0963 .- 1365-2133. ; 166:6, s. 1301-1308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In contrast to asthma and rhinitis, few studies among adults investigating the prevalence and risk factors of eczema have been published. Objectives To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of eczema among adults in West Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Methods A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed in 2008 to 30 000 randomly selected subjects in West Sweden aged 16-75 years; 62% responded. The questionnaire included questions about eczema, respiratory symptoms and diseases and their possible determinants. A subgroup of 669 subjects underwent skin prick testing against common airborne allergens. Results 'Eczema ever' was reported by 40.7% and 'current eczema' by 11.5%. Both conditions were significantly more common among women. The prevalence decreased with increasing age. The coexistence of both asthma and rhinitis with eczema was common. The main risk factors were family history of allergy and asthma. The dominant environmental risk factor was occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes. Smoking increased the risk. Eczema was associated with urbanization, while growing up on a farm was associated with a decreased risk. Added one by one to the multivariate model, asthma, allergic rhinitis and any positive skin prick test were associated with eczema. Conclusions Eczema among adults is a common disease with more women than men having and having had eczema. Eczema is associated with other atopic diseases and with airway symptoms. Hereditary factors and exposure to gas, dust and fumes are associated with eczema.
  • Rönmark, Erik P, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Large scale questionnaire survey on respiratory health in Sweden: effects of late- and non-response.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Respiratory medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 1532-3064 .- 0954-6111. ; 103:12, s. 1807-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Participation rates in epidemiologic studies conducted with postal questionnaires have steadily declined since 1970s. This can lead to an increased risk for selection bias. The aim of this study was to examine cause and effect of non-response in a large cross sectional study assessing respiratory health in western Sweden. METHODS: The study sample was 29,218. The response rate to the initial postal questionnaire was 33%. The response rates to subsequent postal reminders were 15%, 7% and 7% of eligible participants totalling a participation of 62%. Of those who did not respond to the postal survey, a random sample of 400 subjects were identified and contacted for interview by telephone. RESULTS: Non-responders did not differ significantly in prevalence of airway diseases or symptoms when compared with responders. Male sex, young age and smokers were underestimated among non-responders. No clear trends in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and report of asthma were found with delayed response to the postal survey. The proportion of smokers and men increased with increasing number of reminders. Letters reminding subjects about the study did increase the participation rate but did not alter the risk estimates. CONCLUSION: We conclude that with a response rate of 62%, our estimate of disease and symptom prevalence was not biased in this Swedish population. However, smoking was underestimated. No general trend for late-responders was seen and therefore we conclude that extrapolation of results to non-responders is not possible in our study. Causes of non-response were mainly due to circumstantial factors.
  • Suzuki, Shintaro, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of sensitization to furry animal allergen components in an adult population.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Wiley. - 1365-2222 .- 0954-7894. ; 49:4, s. 495-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are paucity of data on sensitization to furry animal allergen components in adults. Furry animals are major sensitizers and contributors to asthma burden in northern Europe and North America.To characterize sensitization patterns to furry animal allergen components in Swedish adults.Based on the West Sweden Asthma Study, a random population (n = 1103) and an asthma sample (n = 769) were tested for allergen sensitization using Phadiatop® . Those with IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L were tested for cat (Fel d 1, 2, and 4), dog (Can f 1, 2, 3, and 5), and horse (Equ c 1) allergen component sensitization. We defined allergen component poly-sensitization patterns, identified data-driven sensitization clusters, described component sensitization overlaps, and assessed determinants of sensitization patterns.The prevalence of allergen component sensitization ranged from 0.8% for Fel d 2 and Can f 3 to 8.9% for Fel d 1. The most common dog component was Can f 5 (3.6%); 2.1% were sensitized to Equ c 1. Those sensitized to Fel d 2 and Fel d 4 were commonly sensitized to Fel d 1. The most common dog component overlap was between Can f 1/Can f 2 and Can f 5. Mono-sensitization was 5.6%, double sensitization 1.5% and poly-sensitization 2.1%. Sensitization was always higher in the asthma than in the random sample. Three sensitization clusters were derived, namely non-sensitized (90% in random vs 66% in asthma sample); Fel d 1-driven sensitized (7% vs 19%); and multi-sensitized (3% vs 15%). Key determinants of sensitization were gender, age, raised on a farm, family history of allergy or asthma, smoking, and occupational exposure to dust or fumes.Fel d 1 and Can f 5 are the most common cat and dog components sensitization in this adult Swedish population. Mono-sensitization is more common than poly-sensitization. This detailed characterization highlights the current distribution of furry animal allergen components in Swedish adults, and their impact on clinical outcomes of asthma will be further explored.
  • Allinson, James, et al. (författare)
  • Collating data from major European population studies - The CADSET (Chronic airway disease early stratification) clinical research collaboration
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: European population cohorts continue to expand our understanding of chronic airways disease and inter-study collaboration may help address the inevitable limitations of study size, duration, era and geography. Towards this aim, CADSET has collated data from ten major general population European cohorts: Asklepios; Copenhagen City Heart Study; Copenhagen General Population Study; ECRHS; HUNT; LEAD; Lifelines, OLIN, Rotterdam Study and WSAS. We included males and females aged 20 to 95 years with baseline demographic and spirometry data.Results: Data from 262,829 individuals (44% male) from multiple European countries provided good coverage across all adult ages (Fig.1A). Recruitment occurred in every year from 1976 through 2020. 23% were current-smokers and 42% were never-smokers, a pattern varying with advancing age (Fig.1B). The prevalence of airflow limitation varied according to whether lower limit of normal (LLN) or <0.70 thresholds were applied, increasing with age if the latter was used (Fig.1C).Interpretation: These results fit with previous reports, however the size, geographical reach and span of recruitment provided by this collaboration provides a unique opportunity to explore chronic airways disease development. Together, we are now pursuing research questions previously beyond the scope of individual cohort studies.
  • Allinson, James P, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in lung function in European adults born between 1884 and 1996 and implications for the diagnosis of lung disease: a cross-sectional analysis of ten population-based studies.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. - : Elsevier. - 2213-2619 .- 2213-2600. ; 10:1, s. 83-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past century, socioeconomic and scientific advances have resulted in changes in the health and physique of European populations. Accompanying improvements in lung function, if unrecognised, could result in the misclassification of lung function measurements and misdiagnosis of lung diseases. We therefore investigated changes in population lung function with birth year across the past century, accounting for increasing population height, and examined how such changes might influence the interpretation of lung function measurements.In our analyses of cross-sectional data from ten European population-based studies, we included individuals aged 20-94 years who were born between 1884 and 1996, regardless of previous respiratory diagnoses or symptoms. FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), height, weight, and smoking behaviour were measured between 1965 and 2016. We used meta-regression to investigate how FEV1 and FVC (adjusting for age, study, height, sex, smoking status, smoking pack-years, and weight) and the FEV1/FVC ratio (adjusting for age, study, sex, and smoking status) changed with birth year. Using estimates from these models, we graphically explored how mean lung function values would be expected to progressively deviate from predicted values. To substantiate our findings, we used linear regression to investigate how the FEV1 and FVC values predicted by 32 reference equations published between 1961 and 2015 changed with estimated birth year.Across the ten included studies, we included 243 465 European participants (mean age 51·4 years, 95% CI 51·4-51·5) in our analysis, of whom 136 275 (56·0%) were female and 107 190 (44·0%) were male. After full adjustment, FEV1 increased by 4·8 mL/birth year (95% CI 2·6-7·0; p<0·0001) and FVC increased by 8·8 mL/birth year (5·7-12·0; p<0·0001). Birth year-related increases in the FEV1 and FVC values predicted by published reference equations corroborated these findings. This height-independent increase in FEV1 and FVC across the last century will have caused mean population values to progressively exceed previously predicted values. However, the population mean adjusted FEV1/FVC ratio decreased by 0·11 per 100 birth years (95% CI 0·09-0·14; p<0·0001).If current diagnostic criteria remain unchanged, the identified shifts in European values will allow the easier fulfilment of diagnostic criteria for lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the systematic underestimation of lung disease severity.The European Respiratory Society, AstraZeneca, Chiesi Farmaceutici, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, and Sanofi-Genzyme.
  • Almqvist, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical outcome of adult onset asthma in a 15 year follow-up
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:Suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Adult onset asthma is poorly studied and there are few long-term clinical follow-up studies.Aim: To study clinical characteristics of adult onset asthma in a 15-year follow-up.Method: Within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort of n=309 subjects with adult onset asthma (aged 20-60 years) was recruited during 1995-99. The cohort was followed up in 2012-14 (n=205). Structured interviews and clinical examinations including spirometry were performed at both recruitment and follow-up. Skin prick tests were performed at recruitment and blood samples for cell counts and IgE at the follow-up. Asthma control was classified according to GINA 2006.Results: At follow-up n=182 (89%) still had asthma, while n=23 (11%) were in remission. Among individuals with persistent asthma, mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent of predicted was 89.0 at follow-up, similar as recruitment 88.3. At recruitment 16.5% were smokers, and of these, 86.7% had quit smoking at follow-up. At follow-up, 39% had blood neutrophils ≥4.0x109/L, 23% had blood eosinophils ≥0.3x109/L, and 28% had specific IgE>0.35 IU/ml to any airborne allergen. Any respiratory symptoms were reported by 90% and 31% used medium or high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), 20% low dose ICS whereas 20% had no treatment. 55% had controlled asthma, 32% partly controlled and 13% uncontrolled asthma.Conclusion: In this 15-year follow-up of adult onset asthma, the majority had persistent asthma. Smoking and high proportion using ICS may contribute to the stable lung function. Still, it should be noted that merely around every other had well controlled asthma.
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