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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Radon K.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Radon K.)

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1.
  • Henneberger, P K, et al. (författare)
  • The occupational contribution to severe exacerbation of asthma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. - 1399-3003 .- 0903-1936. ; 36:4, s. 743-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The goal of this study was to identify occupational risk factors for severe exacerbation of asthma and estimate the extent to which occupation contributes to these events. The 966 participants were working adults with current asthma who participated in the follow-up phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Severe exacerbation of asthma was defined as self-reported unplanned care for asthma in the past 12 months. Occupations held in the same period were combined with a general population job-exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures. 74 participants reported having had at least one severe exacerbation event, for a 1-yr cumulative incidence of 7.7%. From regression models that controlled for confounders, the relative risk (RR) was statistically significant for low (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6) and high (RR 3.6, 95% CI 2.2-5.8) biological dust exposure, high mineral dust exposure (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.02-3.2), and high gas and fumes exposure (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.5). The summary category of high dust, gas, or fumes exposure had RR 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-5.1). Based on this RR, the population attributable risk was 14.7% among workers with current asthma. These results suggest occupation contributes to approximately one in seven cases of severe exacerbation of asthma in a working population, and various agents play a role.
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2.
  • Bousquet, J, et al. (författare)
  • GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - 1398-9995. ; 64:7, s. 969-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA(2)LEN are reported in this paper.
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3.
  • Radon, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and adult onset of rhinitis in the general population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 65:1, s. 38-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of new-onset rhinitis in apprentices. However, population-based prospective data are scarce and do not cover new onset of rhinitis later in life. The authors studied the association between occupational exposure and adult onset of rhinitis prospectively. Methods: The data of 4994 participants (age at follow-up 28-57 years) from 27 centres of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II who were symptom-free at baseline were analysed. As outcome at follow-up self-reported (a) nasal allergies ("allergic rhinitis'') and (b) runny, blocked nose for 12 months a year ("perennial rhinitis'') were used. Occupational exposures at any time during follow-up were defined by job title. Results: The cumulative incidence of allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis and both conditions was 12%, 11% and 3%, respectively. Compared to office workers, male medical professionals were at increased risk of new onset of allergic rhinitis (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). Odds ratios were reduced in metal workers not involved in metal making or treating (0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7). For perennial rhinitis ORs were significantly increased in cleaners (1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1). Conclusions: Cleaners and medical professionals may be at increased risk for adult-onset rhinitis.
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4.
  • Cardwell, Chris R, et al. (författare)
  • Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS, GREAT CLARENDON ST, OXFORD OX2 6DP, ENGLAND. - 0300-5771. ; 40:2, s. 363-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Methods Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Results Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11 955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I-2 = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children andlt; 5 years of age (n = 25 studies, maternal age adjusted OR = 0.84 95% CI 0.75, 0.93; I-2 = 23%). Conclusion Although the association varied between studies, there was some evidence of a lower risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes with increasing birth order, particularly in children aged andlt; 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.
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5.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Healthy hire effect, job selection and inhalation exposure among young adults with asthma
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 36:3, s. 517-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to assess whether asthma onset prior to entering the workforce influences whether a person holds a subsequent job with asthma-related inhalation exposures. The data of 19,784 adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were analysed. For each respondent, a current or previously held job was linked to a job exposure matrix assigning high, low or no exposure to dust, gases or fumes. Jobs were also categorised according to the risk of exposures related to occupational asthma. Associations between asthma and subsequent occupational exposures were assessed using logistic regression models, with a random intercept for study centre and fixed adjustment for age, sex, type of study sample and smoking status. Of the respondents, 8% (n=1,619) reported asthma with onset before completion of full-time education. This population was at decreased risk of having a job with high (odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.92) or low (0.91; 0.80-1.03) exposure to dust, gases or fumes. The associations were consistent across exposure types (dusts, gases or fumes) and for jobs with a high risk of occupational asthma. Adults with asthma onset prior to entering the workforce may be less likely to hold jobs involving inhalation exposures.
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6.
  • Cardwell, Chris R, et al. (författare)
  • Breast-Feeding and Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes A pooled analysis of individual participant data from 43 observational studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 35:11, s. 2215-2225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Relevant studies were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of relevant studies were asked to provide individual participant data or conduct prespecified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to combine odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS-Data were available from 43 studies including 9,874 patients with type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was a reduction in the risk of diabetes after exclusive breast-feeding for andgt;2 weeks (20 studies; OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.88), the association after exclusive breast-feeding for andgt;3 months was weaker (30 studies; OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.00), and no association was observed after (nonexclusive) breast-feeding for andgt;2 weeks (28 studies; OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.81-1.07) or andgt;3 months (29 studies; OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). These associations were all subject to marked heterogeneity (I-2 = 58, 76, 54, and 68%, respectively). In studies with lower risk of bias, the reduced risk after exclusive breast-feeding for andgt;2 weeks remained (12 studies; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99), and heterogeneity was reduced (I-2 = 0%). Adjustments for potential confounders altered these estimates very little. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS-The pooled analysis suggests weak protective associations between exclusive breast-feeding and type 1 diabetes risk. However, these findings are difficult to interpret because of the marked variation in effect and possible biases (particularly recall bias) inherent in the included studies.
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7.
  • Kogevinas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 370:9584, s. 336-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to substances in the workplace in new-onset asthma is not well characterised in population-based studies. We therefore aimed to estimate the relative and attributable risks of new-onset asthma in relation to occupations, work-related exposures, and inhalation accidents. METHODS: We studied prospectively 6837 participants from 13 countries who previously took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (1990-95) and did not report respiratory symptoms or a history of asthma at the time of the first study. Asthma was assessed by methacholine challenge test and by questionnaire data on asthma symptoms. Exposures were defined by high-risk occupations, an asthma-specific job exposure matrix with additional expert judgment, and through self-report of acute inhalation events. Relative risks for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and study centre. FINDINGS: A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (Relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.017). Risks were highest for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity in addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, p=0.008). Of common occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.2, 1.3-4.0, p=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants who reported an acute symptomatic inhalation event such as fire, mixing cleaning products, or chemical spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, p=0.051). The population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year. INTERPRETATION: Occupational exposures account for a substantial proportion of adult asthma incidence. The increased risk of asthma after inhalation accidents suggests that workers who have such accidents should be monitored closely.
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8.
  • Mirabelli, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational risk factors for asthma among nurses and related healthcare professionals in an international study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occup Environ Med. - 1470-7926. ; 64:7, s. 474-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relations between self-reported work tasks, use of cleaning products and latex glove use with new-onset asthma among nurses and other healthcare workers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II). METHODS: In a random population sample of adults from 22 European sites, 332 participants reported working in nursing and other related healthcare jobs during the nine-year ECRHS II follow-up period and responded to a supplemental questionnaire about their principal work settings, occupational tasks, products used at work and respiratory symptoms. Poisson regression models with robust error variances were used to compare the risk of new-onset asthma among healthcare workers with each exposure to that of respondents who reported professional or administrative occupations during the entire follow-up period (n = 2481). RESULTS: Twenty (6%) healthcare workers and 131 (5%) members of the referent population reported new-onset asthma. Compared to the referent group, the authors observed increased risks among hospital technicians (RR 4.63; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.5) and among those using ammonia and/or bleach at work (RR 2.16; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.53). CONCLUSIONS: In the ECRHS II cohort, hospital technicians and other healthcare workers experience increased risks of new-onset current asthma, possibly due to specific products used at work.
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10.
  • Rodriguez-Molina, D., et al. (författare)
  • Carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales in wastewater treatment plant workers and surrounding residents - the AWARE Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. - 0934-9723.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate whether wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers and residents living in close proximity to a WWTP have elevated carriage rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales, as compared to the general population. From 2018 to 2020, we carried out a cross-sectional study in Germany, the Netherlands, and Romania among WWTP workers (N = 344), nearby residents (living <= 300 m away from WWTPs; N = 431) and distant residents (living >= 1000 m away = reference group; N = 1165). We collected information on potential confounders via questionnaire. Culture of participants' stool samples was performed with ChromID (R)-ESBL agar plates and species identification with MALDI-TOF-MS. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for carrying ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC). Sensitivity analyses included stratification by country and interaction models using country as secondary exposure. Prevalence of ESBL-EC was 11% (workers), 29% (nearby residents), and 7% (distant residents), and higher in Romania (28%) than in Germany (7%) and the Netherlands (6%). Models stratified by country showed that within the Romanian population, WWTP workers are about twice as likely (aOR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.22-4.50) and nearby residents about three times as likely (aOR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.80-5.59) to be ESBL-EC carriers, when compared with distant residents. In stratified analyses by country, we found an increased risk for carriage of ESBL-EC in Romanian workers and nearby residents. This effect was higher for nearby residents than for workers, which suggests that, for nearby residents, factors other than the local WWTP could contribute to the increased carriage.
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