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Sökning: WFRF:(Radua Joaquim)

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  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal Structural Brain Changes in Bipolar Disorder: A Multicenter Neuroimaging Study of 1232 Individuals by the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - : Elsevier BV. - 1873-2402 .- 0006-3223. ; 91:6, s. 582-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities. It is unclear whether such alterations progressively change over time, and how this is related to the number of mood episodes. To address this question, we analyzed a large and diverse international sample with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data to examine structural brain changes over time in BD.Longitudinal structural MRI and clinical data from the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) BD Working Group, including 307 patients with BD and 925 healthy control subjects, were collected from 14 sites worldwide. Male and female participants, aged 40 ± 17 years, underwent MRI at 2 time points. Cortical thickness, surface area, and subcortical volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer. Annualized change rates for each imaging phenotype were compared between patients with BD and healthy control subjects. Within patients, we related brain change rates to the number of mood episodes between time points and tested for effects of demographic and clinical variables.Compared with healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed faster enlargement of ventricular volumes and slower thinning of the fusiform and parahippocampal cortex (0.18
  • Abou Ghayda, Ramy, et al. (författare)
  • The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Virology. - : WILEY. - 0146-6615 .- 1096-9071. ; 94:6, s. 2402-2413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19s case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.
  • Cho, Kyuyeon, et al. (författare)
  • Immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with diverse health conditions: A comprehensive systematic review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Virology. - : WILEY. - 0146-6615 .- 1096-9071. ; 94:9, s. 4144-4155
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It remains unclear how effective COVID-19 vaccinations will be in patients with weakened immunity due to diseases, transplantation, and dialysis. We conducted a systematic review comparing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with solid tumor, hematologic malignancy, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and patients who received transplantation or dialysis. A literature search was conducted twice using the Medline/PubMed database. As a result, 21 papers were included in the review, and seropositivity rate was summarized by specific type of disease, transplantation, and dialysis. When different papers studied the same type of patient group, a study with a higher number of participants was selected. Most of the solid tumor patients showed a seropositivity rate of more than 80% after the second inoculation, but a low seropositivity was found in certain tumors such as breast cancer. Research in patients with certain types of hematological malignancy and autoimmune diseases has also reported low seropositivity, and this may have been affected by the immunosuppressive treatment these patients receive. Research in patients receiving dialysis or transplantation has reported lower seropositivity rates than the general population, while all patients with inflammatory bowel disease have converted to be seropositive. Meta-analysis validating these results will be needed, and studies will also be needed on methods to protect patients with reduced immunity from COVID-19.
  • Choi, Sungchul, et al. (författare)
  • Global burden of primary liver cancer and its asso- ciation with underlying aetiologies, sociodemo- graphic status, and sex differences from 1990-2019: A DALY-based analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology. - : KOREAN ASSOC STUDY LIVER. - 2287-2728 .- 2287-285X. ; 29:2, s. 433-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Global distribution of dominant liver cancer aetiologies has significantly changed over the past decades. This study analyzed the updated temporal trends of liver cancer aetiologies and sociodemographic status in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.Methods: The Global Burden of Disease 2019 report was used for statistical analysis. In addition, we performed stratification analysis to five quintiles using sociodemographic index and 21 geographic regions.Results: The crude numbers of liver cancer disease-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths significantly increased during the study period (DALYs; 11,278,630 in 1990 and 12,528,422 in 2019, deaths; 365,215 in 1990 and 484,577 in 2019). However, the Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates decreased. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of liver cancer DALYs and mortality, followed by hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH/NAFLD). Although Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates of liver cancer due to HBV and HCV have decreased, the rates due to alcohol consumption and NASH/NAFLD have increased. In 2019, the population of the East Asia region had the highest Age-standardized DALY and mortality rates, followed by high-income Asia-Pacific and Central Asia populations. Although East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions showed a decrease during the study period, Age-standardized DALY rates increased in Central Asia. High-income North American and Australasian populations also showed a significant increase in Age-standardized DALY.Conclusions: Liver cancer remains an ongoing global threat. The burden of liver cancer associated with alcohol consumption and NASH/NAFLD is markedly increasing and projected to continuously increase. (Clin Mol Hepatol 2023;29:433-452)
  • Cortese, Samuele, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, prevalence, and global burden of ADHD from 1990 to 2019 across 204 countries : data, with critical re-analysis, from the Global Burden of Disease study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data on incidence, prevalence and burden of ADHD are crucial for clinicians, patients, and stakeholders. We present the incidence, prevalence, and burden of ADHD globally and across countries from 1990 to 2019 from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. We also: (1) calculated the ADHD prevalence based on data actually collected as opposed to the prevalence estimated by the GBD with data imputation for countries without prevalence data; (2) discussed the GBD estimated ADHD burden in the light of recent meta-analytic evidence on ADHD-related mortality. In 2019, GBD estimated global age-standardized incidence and prevalence of ADHD across the lifespan at 0.061% (95%UI = 0.040-0.087) and 1.13% (95%UI = 0.831-1.494), respectively. ADHD accounted for 0.8% of the global mental disorder DALYs, with mortality set at zero by the GBD. From 1990 to 2019 there was a decrease of -8.75% in the global age-standardized prevalence and of -4.77% in the global age-standardized incidence. The largest increase in incidence, prevalence, and burden from 1990 to 2019 was observed in the USA; the largest decrease occurred in Finland. Incidence, prevalence, and DALYs remained approximately 2.5 times higher in males than females from 1990 to 2019. Incidence peaked at age 5-9 years, and prevalence and DALYs at age 10-14 years. Our re-analysis of data prior to 2013 showed a prevalence in children/adolescents two-fold higher (5.41%, 95% CI: 4.67-6.15%) compared to the corresponding GBD estimated prevalence (2.68%, 1.83-3.72%), with no significant differences between low- and middle- and high-income countries. We also found meta-analytic evidence of significantly increased ADHD-related mortality due to unnatural causes. While it provides the most detailed evidence on temporal trends, as well as on geographic and sex variations in incidence, prevalence, and burden of ADHD, the GBD may have underestimated the ADHD prevalence and burden. Given the influence of the GBD on research and policies, methodological issues should be addressed in its future editions.
  • de Zwarte, Sonja M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Intelligence, educational attainment, and brain structure in those at familial high-risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 414-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • First-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ-FDRs) show similar patterns of brain abnormalities and cognitive alterations to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. First-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD-FDRs) show divergent patterns; on average, intracranial volume is larger compared to controls, and findings on cognitive alterations in BD-FDRs are inconsistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of global and regional brain measures (cortical and subcortical), current IQ, and educational attainment in 5,795 individuals (1,103 SZ-FDRs, 867 BD-FDRs, 2,190 controls, 942 schizophrenia patients, 693 bipolar patients) from 36 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts, with standardized methods. Compared to controls, SZ-FDRs showed a pattern of widespread thinner cortex, while BD-FDRs had widespread larger cortical surface area. IQ was lower in SZ-FDRs (d = -0.42, p = 3 × 10-5 ), with weak evidence of IQ reductions among BD-FDRs (d = -0.23, p = .045). Both relative groups had similar educational attainment compared to controls. When adjusting for IQ or educational attainment, the group-effects on brain measures changed, albeit modestly. Changes were in the expected direction, with less pronounced brain abnormalities in SZ-FDRs and more pronounced effects in BD-FDRs. To conclude, SZ-FDRs and BD-FDRs show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities. In contrast, both had lower IQ scores and similar school achievements compared to controls. Given that brain differences between SZ-FDRs and BD-FDRs remain after adjusting for IQ or educational attainment, we suggest that differential brain developmental processes underlying predisposition for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are likely independent of general cognitive impairment.
  • Dima, Danai, et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumes across the lifespan : Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3–90 years
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 452-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3–90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
  • Dragioti, Elena, Ph.D., et al. (författare)
  • Global population attributable fraction of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders : a meta-umbrella systematic review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : SPRINGER NATURE. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 27:8, s. 3510-3519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous risk factors for mental disorders have been identified. However, we do not know how many disorders we could prevent and to what extent by modifying these risk factors. This study quantifies the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders. We conducted a PRISMA 2020-compliant (Protocol: https://osf.io/hk2ag) meta-umbrella systematic review (Web of Science/PubMed/Cochrane Central Register of Reviews/Ovi/PsycINFO, until 05/12/2021) of umbrella reviews reporting associations between potentially modifiable risk factors and ICD/DSM mental disorders, restricted to highly convincing (class I) and convincing (class II) evidence from prospective cohorts. The primary outcome was the global meta-analytical PAF, complemented by sensitivity analyses across different settings, the meta-analytical Generalised Impact Fraction (GIF), and study quality assessment (AMSTAR). Seven umbrella reviews (including 295 meta-analyses and 547 associations) identified 28 class I-II risk associations (23 risk factors; AMSTAR: 45.0% high-, 35.0% medium-, 20.0% low quality). The largest global PAFs not confounded by indication were 37.84% (95% CI = 26.77-48.40%) for childhood adversities and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 24.76% (95% CI = 13.98-36.49%) for tobacco smoking and opioid use disorders, 17.88% (95% CI = not available) for job strain and depression, 14.60% (95% CI = 9.46-20.52%) for insufficient physical activity and Alzheimers disease, 13.40% (95% CI = 7.75-20.15%) for childhood sexual abuse and depressive disorders, 12.37% (95% CI = 5.37-25.34%) for clinical high-risk state for psychosis and any non-organic psychotic disorders, 10.00% (95% CI = 5.62-15.95%) for three metabolic factors and depression, 9.73% (95% CI = 4.50-17.30%) for cannabis use and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and 9.30% (95% CI = 7.36-11.38%) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and ADHD. The GIFs confirmed the preventive capacity for these factors. Addressing several potentially modifiable risk factors, particularly childhood adversities, can reduce the global population-level incidence of mental disorders.
  • Dragioti, Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of mental disorders on clinical outcomes of physical diseases: an umbrella review assessing population attributable fraction and generalized impact fraction
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: World Psychiatry. - : WILEY. - 1723-8617 .- 2051-5545. ; 22:1, s. 86-104
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Empirical evidence indicates a significant bidirectional association between mental disorders and physical diseases, but the prospective impact of men-tal disorders on clinical outcomes of physical diseases has not been comprehensively outlined. In this PRISMA- and COSMOS-E-compliant umbrella review, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, up to March 15, 2022, to identify systematic reviews with meta-analysis that examined the prospective association between any mental disorder and clinical outcomes of physical diseases. Primary outcomes were disease-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were disease-specific incidence, functioning and/or disability, symptom severity, quality of life, recurrence or progression, major cardiac events, and treatment-related outcomes. Additional inclusion criteria were further applied to primary studies. Random effect models were employed, along with I-2 statistic, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects test, excess significance bias test, and risk of bias (ROBIS) assessment. Associations were classified into five credibility classes of evidence (I to IV and non-significant) according to established criteria, complemented by sensitivity and subgroup analyses to examine the robustness of the main analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using a new package for conducting umbrella reviews (). Population attributable fraction (PAF) and generalized impact fraction (GIF) were then calculated for class I-III associations. Forty-seven systematic reviews with meta-analysis, encompassing 251 non-overlapping primary studies and reporting 74 associations, were included (68% were at low risk of bias at the ROBIS assessment). Altogether, 43 primary outcomes (disease-specific mortality: n=17; all-cause mortality: n=26) and 31 secondary outcomes were investigated. Although 72% of associations were statistically significant (p<0.05), only two showed convincing (class I) evidence: that between depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure (hazard ratio, HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65), and that between schizophrenia and cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases (risk ratio, RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.75). Six associations showed highly suggestive (class II) evidence: those between depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (HR=2.84, 95% CI: 2.00-4.03) and with kidney failure (HR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.31-1.51); that between depressive disorders and major cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction (odds ratio, OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.36-1.70); that between depressive disorders and dementia in patients with diabetes mellitus (HR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.77-2.52); that between alcohol use disorder and decompensated liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C (RR=3.15, 95% CI: 2.87-3.46); and that between schizophrenia and cancer mortality in patients with cancer (standardized mean ratio, SMR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.41-2.15). Sensitivity/subgroup analyses confirmed these results. The largest PAFs were 30.56% (95% CI: 27.67-33.49) for alcohol use disorder and decompensated liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C, 26.81% (95% CI: 16.61-37.67) for depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, 13.68% (95% CI: 9.87-17. 58) for depressive disorders and major cardiac events in patients with myocardial infarction, 11.99% (95% CI: 8.29-15.84) for schizophrenia and cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, and 11.59% (95% CI: 9.09-14.14) for depressive disorders and all-cause mortality in patients with kidney failure. The GIFs confirmed the preventive capacity of these associations. This umbrella review demonstrates that mental disorders increase the risk of a poor clinical outcome in several physical diseases. Prevention targeting mental disorders - particularly alcohol use disorders, depressive disorders, and schizophrenia - can reduce the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes in people with physical diseases. These findings can inform clinical practice and trans-speciality preventive approaches cutting across psychiatric and somatic medicine.
  • Frangou, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness across the lifespan : Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 431-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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