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Sökning: WFRF:(Rasmussen Morten)

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  • Raghavan, Maanasa, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 349:6250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Howand when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericues and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model.
  • Raghavan, Maanasa, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 345:6200, s. 1020-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (similar to 3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
  • Rasmussen, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 506:7487, s. 225-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 C-14 years before present (BP) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years BP)(1,2). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology(3). However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans(2). An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum(4). Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 +/- 35 C-14 years BP (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years BP) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4x and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population(5) into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years BP. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
  • Alleso, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening : a comparative study with Raman spectroscopy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry. - 0003-2700 .- 1520-6882. ; 80:20, s. 7755-7764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and L-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative methods. In the case of saccharin, liquid-assisted cogrinding as well as cocrystallization from solution resulted in a stable 1:1 cocrystalline phase termed IND-SAC cocrystal. For L-aspartic acid, the solution-based method resulted in a polymorphic transition of indomethacin into the metastable a form retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those of pure references. In addition, Raman spectroscopy provided additional information on the crystal structure of the IND-SAC cocrystal. The broad spectral line shapes of NIR spectra make visual interpretation of the spectra difficult, and consequently, multivariate modeling by principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. Successful use of NIR/PCA was possible only through the inclusion of a set of reference mixtures of parent and guest molecules representing possible solid-state outcomes from the cocrystal screening. The practical hurdle related to the need for reference mixtures seems to restrict the applicability of NIR spectroscopy in cocrystal screening.
  • Andreasen, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Brugada syndrome-associated genetic loci are associated with J-point elevation and an increased risk of cardiac arrest
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-042X. ; 9:JUL
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: A previous genome-wide association study found three genetic loci, rs9388451, rs10428132, and rs11708996, to increase the risk of Brugada Syndrome (BrS). Since the effect of these loci in the general population is unknown, we aimed to investigate the effect on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters and outcomes in the general population. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 6,161 individuals (median age 45 [interquartile range (IQR) 40-50] years, 49% males), with available digital ECGs, was genotyped and subsequently followed for a median period of 13 [IQR 12.6-13.4] years. Data on outcomes were collected from Danish administrative healthcare registries. Furthermore, ~400,000 persons from UK Biobank were investigated for associations between the three loci and cardiac arrest/ventricular fibrillation (VF). Results: Homozygote carriers of the C allele in rs6800541 intronic to SCN10A had a significantly larger J-point elevation (JPE) compared with wildtype carriers (11 vs. 6 μV, P < 0.001). There was an additive effect of carrying multiple BrS-associated risk alleles with an increased JPE in lead V1. None of the BrS-associated genetic loci predisposed to syncope, atrial fibrillation, or total mortality in the general Danish population. The rs9388451 genetic locus adjacent to the HEY2 gene was associated with cardiac arrest/VF in an analysis using the UK Biobank study (odds ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.18), P = 0.006). Conclusions: BrS-associated risk alleles increase the JPE in lead V1 in an additive manner, but was not associated with increased mortality or syncope in the general population of Denmark. However, the HEY2 risk allele increased the risk of cardiac arrest/VF in the larger population study of UK Biobank indicating an important role of this common genetic locus.
  • Clemente, Florian J, et al. (författare)
  • A Selective Sweep on a Deleterious Mutation in CPT1A in Arctic Populations.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 95:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.
  • Engberg, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Developing a tool to assess competence in resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta : An international Delphi consensus study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 2163-0755 .- 2163-0763. ; 91:2, s. 310-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an emergency procedure that is potentially lifesaving in major noncompressible torso hemorrhage. It may also improve outcome in nontraumatic cardiac arrest. However, the procedure can be technically challenging and requires the immediate presence of a qualified operator. Thus, evidence-based training and assessment of operator skills are essential for successful implementation and patient safety. A prerequisite for this is a valid and reliable assessment tool specific for the procedure. The aim of this study was to develop a tool for assessing procedural competence in REBOA based on best-available knowledge from international experts in the field.METHODS: We invited international REBOA experts from multiple specialties to participate in an anonymous three-round iterative Delphi study to reach consensus on the design and content of an assessment tool. In round 1, participants suggested items to be included. In rounds 2 and 3, the relevance of each suggested item was evaluated by all participants to reach consensus. Interround data processing was done systematically by a steering group.RESULTS: Forty panelists representing both clinical and educational expertise in REBOA from 16 countries (in Europe, Asia, and North and South America) and seven different specialties participated in the study. After 3 Delphi rounds and 532 initial item suggestions, the panelists reached consensus on a 10-item assessment tool with behaviorally anchored rating scales. It includes assessment of teamwork, procedure time, selection and preparation of equipment, puncture technique, guidewire handling, sheath handling, placement of REBOA catheter, occlusion, and evaluation.CONCLUSION: We present the REBOA-RATE assessment tool developed systematically by international experts in the field to optimize content validity. Following further studies of its validity and reliability, this tool represents an important next step in evidence-based training programs in REBOA, for example, using mastery learning.
  • Gilbert, M. Thomas P., et al. (författare)
  • Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA genome reveals matrilineal discontinuity in Greenland
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 320:5884, s. 1787-1789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Paleo- Eskimo Saqqaq and Independence I cultures, documented from archaeological remains in Northern Canada and Greenland, represent the earliest human expansion into the New World's northern extremes. However, their origin and genetic relationship to later cultures are unknown. We sequenced a mitochondrial genome from a Paleo- Eskimo human by using 3400- to 4500- year- old frozen hair excavated from an early Greenlandic Saqqaq settlement. The sample is distinct from modern Native Americans and Neo- Eskimos, falling within haplogroup D2a1, a group previously observed among modern Aleuts and Siberian Sireniki Yuit. This result suggests that the earliest migrants into the New World's northern extremes derived from populations in the Bering Sea area and were not directly related to Native Americans or the later Neo- Eskimos that replaced them.
  • Granholm, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg for patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia: a pre-planned, secondary Bayesian analysis of the COVID STEROID 2 trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - : SPRINGER. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 48:1, s. 45-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose We compared dexamethasone 12 versus 6 mg daily for up to 10 days in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe hypoxaemia in the international, randomised, blinded COVID STEROID 2 trial. In the primary, conventional analyses, the predefined statistical significance thresholds were not reached. We conducted a pre-planned Bayesian analysis to facilitate probabilistic interpretation. Methods We analysed outcome data within 90 days in the intention-to-treat population (data available in 967 to 982 patients) using Bayesian models with various sensitivity analyses. Results are presented as median posterior probabilities with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) and probabilities of different effect sizes with 12 mg dexamethasone. Results The adjusted mean difference on days alive without life support at day 28 (primary outcome) was 1.3 days (95% CrI -0.3 to 2.9; 94.2% probability of benefit). Adjusted relative risks and probabilities of benefit on serious adverse reactions was 0.85 (0.63 to 1.16; 84.1%) and on mortality 0.87 (0.73 to 1.03; 94.8%) at day 28 and 0.88 (0.75 to 1.02; 95.1%) at day 90. Probabilities of benefit on days alive without life support and days alive out of hospital at day 90 were 85 and 95.7%, respectively. Results were largely consistent across sensitivity analyses, with relatively low probabilities of clinically important harm with 12 mg on all outcomes in all analyses. Conclusion We found high probabilities of benefit and low probabilities of clinically important harm with dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg daily in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia on all outcomes up to 90 days.
  • Granholm, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Higher vs Lower Doses of Dexamethasone in Patients with COVID-19 and Severe Hypoxia (COVID STEROID 2) trial: Protocol for a secondary Bayesian analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - : WILEY. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. ; 65:5, s. 702-710
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to severe hypoxic respiratory failure and death. Corticosteroids decrease mortality in severely or critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, the optimal dose remains unresolved. The ongoing randomised COVID STEROID 2 trial investigates the effects of higher vs lower doses of dexamethasone (12 vs 6 mg intravenously daily for up to 10 days) in 1,000 adult patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxia. Methods This protocol outlines the rationale and statistical methods for a secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analysis of the primary outcome (days alive without life support at day 28) and all secondary outcomes registered up to day 90. We will use hurdle-negative binomial models to estimate the mean number of days alive without life support in each group and present results as mean differences and incidence rate ratios with 95% credibility intervals (CrIs). Additional count outcomes will be analysed similarly and binary outcomes will be analysed using logistic regression models with results presented as probabilities, relative risks and risk differences with 95% CrIs. We will present probabilities of any benefit/harm, clinically important benefit/harm and probabilities of effects smaller than pre-defined clinically minimally important differences for all outcomes analysed. Analyses will be adjusted for stratification variables and conducted using weakly informative priors supplemented by sensitivity analyses using sceptic priors. Discussion This secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analysis will supplement the primary, conventional analysis and may help clinicians, researchers and policymakers interpret the results of the COVID STEROID 2 trial while avoiding arbitrarily dichotomised interpretations of the results. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04509973; EudraCT: 2020-003363-25.
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