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Sökning: WFRF:(Rauch Uwe)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 42
  • [1]2345Nästa
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1.
  • Baier, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Hyaluronan is organized into fiber-like structures along migratory pathways in the developing mouse cerebellum
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Matrix Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1569-1802. ; 26:5, s. 348-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyaluronan is a free glycosaminoglycan which is abundant in the extracellular matrix of the developing brain. Although not covalently linked to any protein it can act as a backbone molecule forming aggregates with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the lectican family and link proteins. Using neurocan-GFP as a direct histochemical probe we analyzed the distribution and organization of hyaluronan in the developing mouse cerebellum, and related its fine structure to cell types of specified developmental stages. We observed a high affinity of this probe to fiber-like structures in the prospective white matter which are preferentially oriented parallel to the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development suggesting a specially organized form of hyaluronan. In other layers of the cerebellar cortex, the hyaluronan organization seemed to be more diffuse. During the second postnatal week, the overall staining intensity of hyaluronan in the white matter declined but fiber-like structures were still present at the adult stage. This type of hyaluronan organization is different from perineuronal nets e.g. found in deep cerebellar nuclei. Double staining experiments with cell type specific markers indicated that these fiber-like structures are predominantly situated in regions where motile cells such as Pax2-positive inhibitory interneuron precursors and MBP-positive oligodendroglial cells are located. In contrast, more stationary cells such as mature granule cells and Purkinje cells are associated with lower levels of hyaluronan in their environment. Thus, hyaluronan-rich fibers are concentrated at sites where specific neural precursor cell types migrate, and the anisotropic orientation of these fibers suggests that they may support guided neural migration during brain development. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V./International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Bartolini, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Mouse development is not obviously affected by the absence of dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 in spite of a modified brain dermatan sulfate composition.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2423. ; 22:7, s. 1007-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 (DS-epi2), together with its homologue DS-epi1, transform glucuronic acid into iduronic acid in dermatan sulfate polysaccharide chains. Iduronic acid gives dermatan sulfate increased chain flexibility and promotes protein binding. DS-epi2 is ubiquitously expressed and is the predominant epimerase in brain. Here we report the generation and initial characterization of DS-epi2 null mice. DS-epi2 deficient mice showed no anatomical, histological or morphological abnormalities. The body weights and lengths of mutated and wild-type littermates were indistinguishable. They were fertile and had a normal lifespan. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) isolated from newborn mutated mouse brains had a 38% reduction in iduronic acid compared to wild type littermates and compositional analysis revealed a decrease of 4-O-sulfate and an increase of 6-O-sulfate containing structures. Despite the reduction in iduronic acid, adult DS-epi2-/- brain showed normal extracellular matrix features by immunohistological stainings. We conclude that DS-epi1 compensates in vivo for the loss of DS-epi2.. These results extend previous findings of functional redundancy of brain extracellular matrix components.
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3.
  • Bekku, Yoko, et al. (författare)
  • Brevican distinctively assembles extracellular components at the large diameter nodes of Ranvier in the CNS
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurochemistry. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1471-4159. ; 108:5, s. 1266-1276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brevican is known to be an abundant extracellular matrix component in the adult brain and a structural constituent of perineuronal nets. We herein show that brevican, tenascin-R (TN-R) and phosphacan are present at the nodes of Ranvier on myelinated axons with a particularly large diameter in the central nervous system. A brevican deficiency resulted in a reorganization of the nodal matrices, which was characterized by the shift of TN-R, and concomitantly phosphacan, from an axonal diameter-dependent association with nodes to an axonal diameter independent association. Supported by the co-immunoprecipitation results, these observations indicate that the presence of TN-R and phosphacan at nodes is normally brevican-dependent, while in the absence of brevican these molecules can also be recruited by versican V2. The versican V2 and Bral1 distribution was not affected, thus indicating a brevican-independent role of these two molecules for establishing hyaluronan-binding matrices at the nodes. Our results revealed that brevican plays a crucial role in determining the specialization of the hyaluronan-binding nodal matrix assemblies in large diameter nodes.
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4.
  • Boehm, Heike, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping the mechanics and macromolecular organization of hyaluronan-rich cell coats
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Soft Matter. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1744-6848. ; 5:21, s. 4331-4337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hyaluronan (HA)-rich pericellular coat (PCC) enveloping most mammalian cells plays a vital role in biological processes such as cell adhesion, proliferation, motility and embryogenesis. In particular its presence on chondrocytes, which live in the load-bearing cartilage, has a wide range of implications in diseases such as osteoarthritis, highlighting its mechanical role in living organisms. Despite its significance, the macromolecular organization of the cell coat remains speculative. In order to obtain a more detailed spatial picture of highly hydrated PCCs, we present two independent but complementary non-invasive techniques for the position-resolved analysis of the cell coat's mechanical and structural properties. Position-dependent microrheology provides a micromechanical map of the PCC that reveals a gradient of increasing elastic stiffness towards the plasma membrane on model rat chondrocyte cells (RCJ-P). This gradient can be correlated with the relative distribution of HA, which is inferred using an eGFP-labelled neurocan-binding domain, a small fluorescent molecule that binds to HA. The spatial variation of the HA concentration profile is consistent with the position-dependent elasticity. Combining these approaches sheds light on the molecular architecture of the PCC.
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6.
  • Brakebusch, Cord, et al. (författare)
  • Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Biology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 0270-7306. ; 22:21, s. 7417-7427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan which is found in specialized extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets. Brevican increases the invasiveness of glioma cells in vivo and has been suggested to play a role in central nervous system fiber tract development. To study the role of brevican in the development and function of the brain, we generated mice lacking a functional brevican gene. These mice are viable and fertile and have a normal life span. Brain anatomy was normal, although alterations in the expression of neurocan were detected. Perineuronal nets formed but appeared to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect. Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles.
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7.
  • Chen, Yihong, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a protective role of placental growth factor in cardiovascular disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6242. ; 12:572
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a mitogen for endothelial cells, but it can also act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Because it promotes early stages of plaque formation in experimental models of atherosclerosis and was implicated in epidemiological associations with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), PlGF has been attributed a pro-atherogenic role. Here, we investigated whether PlGF has a protective role in CVD and whether elevated PlGF reflects activation of repair processes in response to vascular stress. In a population cohort of 4742 individuals with 20 years of follow-up, high baseline plasma PlGF was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, but these associations were lost or weakened when adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors known to cause vascular stress. Exposure of cultured endothelial cells to high glucose, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or an inducer of apoptosis enhanced the release of PlGF. Smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells treated with PlGF small interference RNA demonstrated that autocrine PlGF stimulation plays an important role in vascular repair responses. High expression of PlGF in human carotid plaques removed at surgery was associated with a more stable plaque phenotype and a lower risk of future cardiovascular events. When adjusting associations of PlGF with cardiovascular risk in the population cohort for plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-2, a biomarker of cellular stress, a high PlGF/TRAIL receptor-2 ratio was associated with a lower risk. Our findings provide evidence for a protective role of PlGF in CVD.
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8.
  • Degerman, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of insulin signalling components in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - : Springer. - 1432-0878. ; 352:3, s. 469-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have demonstrated a link between diabetes and the dysfunction of the inner ear. Few studies, however, have reported the signalling mechanisms involved in metabolic control in human inner ear cells. Knowledge of the expression and role of the insulin receptor and downstream signalling components in the inner ear is sparce. Our immunohistochemistry approach has shown that the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B (PKB) and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) are expressed in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule, which also exhibits expression of a calcium-sensitive cAMP/cGMP phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C) and the vasopressin type 2 receptor. IRS1 and PDE1C are selectively expressed in sensory epithelial hair cells, whereas the other components are expressed in sensory epithelial supporting cells or in both cell types, as judged from co-expression or non-co-expression with glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for supporting cells. Furthermore, IRS1 appears to be localized in association with sensory nerves, whereas GLUT4 is expressed in the peri-nuclear area of stromal cells, as is the case for aquaporin 2. Thus, the insulin receptor, insulin signalling components and selected cAMP signalling components are expressed in the human saccule. In addition to well-known mechanisms of diabetes complications, such as neuropathy and vascular lesions, the expression of these proteins in the saccule could have a role in the observed link between diabetes and balance/hearing disorders.
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9.
  • Degerman, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of new signaling components in the sensory epithelium of human saccule.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neurology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-2295. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To locate components and target proteins of relevance for the cAMP and cGMP signaling networks including cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), subunits of Na+, K+-ATPases, and aquaporins (AQPs) in the human saccule. Methods: The human saccule was dissected out during the removal of vestibular schwannoma via the translabyrinthine approach and immediately fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed using PDE, SIK, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, and AQP antibodies. Results: PDEs selective for cAMP (PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE8A) and cGMP (PDE9A) as well a dual specificity PDE (PDE10A) were detected in the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Furthermore, AQP2, 4, and 9, SIK1 and the α-1 subunit of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were detected. Conclusion: cAMP and cGMP are important regulators of ion and water homeostasis in the inner ear. The identification of PDEs and SIK1 in the vestibular system offers new treatment targets for endolymphatic hydrops. Exactly how the PDEs are connected to SIK1 and the SIK1 substrate Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and to AQPs 2, 4, 9 remains to be elucidated. The dissection of the signaling networks utilizing these components and evaluating their roles will add new basic knowledge regarding inner ear physiology.
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10.
  • Dours-Zimmermann, Maria T., et al. (författare)
  • Versican V2 Assembles the Extracellular Matrix Surrounding the Nodes of Ranvier in the CNS
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - : Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401. ; 29:24, s. 7731-7742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CNS-restricted versican splice-variant V2 is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan incorporated in the extracellular matrix surrounding myelinated fibers and particularly accumulating at nodes of Ranvier. In vitro, it is a potent inhibitor of axonal growth and therefore considered to participate in the reduction of structural plasticity connected to myelination. To study the role of versican V2 during postnatal development, we designed a novel isoform-specific gene inactivation approach circumventing early embryonic lethality of the complete knock-out and preventing compensation by the remaining versican splice variants. These mice are viable and fertile; however, they display major molecular alterations at the nodes of Ranvier. While the clustering of nodal sodium channels and paranodal structures appear in versican V2-deficient mice unaffected, the formation of the extracellular matrix surrounding the nodes is largely impaired. The conjoint loss of tenascin-R and phosphacan from the perinodal matrix provide strong evidence that versican V2, possibly controlled by a nodal receptor, organizes the extracellular matrix assembly in vivo.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 42
  • [1]2345Nästa

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