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Sökning: WFRF:(Reinert L. S.)

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  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.
  • Iversen, M. B., et al. (författare)
  • An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Immunology. - 1529-2908. ; 17:2, s. 150-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity in a manner dependent on neutrophils. This study therefore identifies a previously unknown layer of antiviral defense that exerts its action on epithelial surfaces before the classical IFN response is operative.
  • Jacquet, J M, et al. (författare)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a combined DTPa-IPV vaccine administered as a booster from 4 years of age : a review
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - 0264-410X .- 1873-2518. ; 24:13, s. 2440-2448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combined DTPa-IPV booster vaccine was administered as a 4th or 5th dose after DTPa or DTPw priming. Over 99% vaccines developed antibody levels considered to be protective to diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus, and >95% mounted a response to acellular pertussis antigens. Rectal temperature >39.5 degrees C was observed in at most 3.2% of vaccinees. Swelling >50 mm occurred in 24% of DTPa-primed compared to 5.5% of DTPw-primed children. Large swelling involving the entire upper arm (extending to involve the elbow joint) was reported for up to 1.2% of DTPa-primed subjects, which is consistent with literature reports for other DTPa vaccines.
  • Mallet, E, et al. (författare)
  • A liquid hexavalent combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B: review of immunogenicity and safety
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2518 .- 0264-410X. ; 22:11-12, s. 1343-1357
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To reduce the number of injections needed to comply with paediatric vaccination requirements, a liquid, hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-PRP-T-HBs; Hexavac((R)); Aventis Pasteur MSD) has been developed for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers. In extensive clinical studies, Hexavac((R)) has been shown to be highly immunogenic. Seroconversion or seroprotective titres of antibodies against all antigens were achieved in the majority of infants following a primary series of three doses administered at 1-2-month intervals from 2 months of age. Hexavac((R)) also induced immunologic memory, as evidenced by the anamnestic response to booster vaccination at 12-18 months of age. These responses were comparable with those seen following concomitant administration of Pentavac(TM) (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T) and monovalent hepatitis B vaccine (H-B-Vax(TM) II), and were also within the ranges observed for other relevant licensed vaccines. Clinical studies comparing the immunogenicity of Hexavac((R)) administered at either 2, 3 and 4 months or 2, 4 and 6 months demonstrated that it can be used by either vaccination schedule. A further study also supported the use of primary doses of Hexavac((R)) at 3 and 5 months with a booster at 12 months of age. Hexavac((R)) demonstrated a good reactogenicity and tolerability profile. The most frequently reported adverse events after both primary and booster doses were local reactions of redness and swelling/induration and a systemic response of mild fever, irrespective of the vaccine used for priming. Hexavac((R)) provided immunity against six important childhood diseases with a single injection at each visit. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Keshavan, Sandeep, et al. (författare)
  • Profiling of sub‐lethal in vitro effects of multi‐walled carbon nanotubes reveals changes in chemokines and chemokine receptors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nanomaterials. - 2079-4991. ; 11:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Engineered nanomaterials are potentially very useful for a variety of applications, but studies are needed to ascertain whether these materials pose a risk to human health. Here, we studied three benchmark nanomaterials (Ag nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoparticles, and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs) procured from the nanomaterial repository at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Having established a sub‐lethal concentration of these materials using two human cell lines representative of the immune system and the lungs, respectively, we performed RNA sequencing of the macrophage‐like cell line after exposure for 6, 12, and 24 h. Downstream analysis of the transcriptomics data revealed significant effects on chemokine signaling pathways. CCR2 was identified as the most significantly upregulated gene in MWCNT‐exposed cells. Using multiplex assays to evaluate cytokine and chemokine secretion, we could show significant effects of MWCNTs on several chemokines, including CCL2, a ligand of CCR2. The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating sub‐lethal concentrations of nanomaterials in relevant target cells.
  • Bak, Nina Friis, et al. (författare)
  • High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation decreases the number of colonic CD103+ dendritic cells in healthy subjects.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European journal of nutrition. - 1436-6215. ; 57:7, s. 2607-2619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin D may induce tolerance in the intestinal immune system and has been shown to regulate the phenotype of tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation affects human intestinal DCs in vivo, and we aimed to investigate the tolerability and effect on intestinal CD103+DCs of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment in healthy subjects.Ten healthy subjects received a total of 480,000 IU oral vitamin D3 over 15 days and colonic biopsies were obtained before and after intervention by endoscopy. Lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were isolated from the biopsies, stained with DC surface markers and analysed with flow cytometry. Snap-frozen biopsies were analysed with qPCR for DC and regulatory T cell-related genes.No hypercalcemia or other adverse events occurred in the test subjects. Vitamin D decreased the number of CD103+ DCs among LPMCs (p = 0.006). Furthermore, vitamin D induced mRNA expression of TGF-β (p = 0.048), TNF-α (p = 0.006) and PD-L1 (p = 0.02) and tended to induce IL-10 expression (p = 0.06). Multivariate factor analysis discriminated between pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation with a combined increased qPCR expression of PD1, PD-L1, TGF-β, IL-10, CD80, CD86, FOXP3, NFATc2 and cathelicidin.High-dose vitamin D supplementation is well tolerated by healthy subjects and has a direct effect on the CD103+ DCs, local cytokine and surface marker mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa, suggestive of a shift towards a more tolerogenic milieu.
  • Bodda, C., et al. (författare)
  • HSV1 VP1-2 deubiquitinates STING to block type I interferon expression and promote brain infection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of experimental medicine. - 1540-9538. ; 217:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the main cause of viral encephalitis in the Western world, and the type I interferon (IFN) system is important for antiviral control in the brain. Here, we have compared Ifnb induction in mixed murine brain cell cultures by a panel of HSV1 mutants, each devoid of one mechanism to counteract the IFN-stimulating cGAS-STING pathway. We found that a mutant lacking the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the VP1-2 protein induced particularly strong expression of Ifnb and IFN-stimulated genes. HSV1 ΔDUB also induced elevated IFN expression in murine and human microglia and exhibited reduced viral replication in the brain. This was associated with increased ubiquitination of STING and elevated phosphorylation of STING, TBK1, and IRF3. VP1-2 associated directly with STING, leading to its deubiquitination. Recruitment of VP1-2 to STING was dependent on K150 of STING, which was ubiquitinated by TRIM32. Thus, the DUB activity of HSV1 VP1-2 is a major viral immune-evasion mechanism in the brain. © 2020 Bodda et al.
  • Meyer, F., et al. (författare)
  • "Building Block Picture" of the Electronic Structure of Aqueous Cysteine Derived from Resonant Inelastic Soft X-ray Scattering
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B. - 1520-6106 .- 1520-5207. ; 118:46, s. 13142-13150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electronic structure of the amino acid l-cysteine in an aqueous environment was studied using resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) in a 2D map representation and analyzed in the framework of a building block approach. The element selectivity of RIXS allows a local investigation of the electronic structure of the three functional groups of cysteine, namely, the carboxyl, amino, and thiol groups, by measuring at the O K, N K, and S L-2,L-3 edges, respectively. Variation of the pH value allows an investigation of molecules with protonated and deprotonated functional groups, which can then be compared with simple reference molecules that represent the isolated functional groups. We find that such building blocks can provide an excellent description of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and RIXS spectra, but only if all nearest-neighbor atoms are included. This finding is analogous to the building block principle commonly used in X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The building blocks show a distinct spectral character (fingerprint) and allow a comprehensive interpretation of the cysteine spectra. This simple approach opens the path to investigate the electronic structure of more complex biological molecules in aqueous solutions using XES and RIXS.
  • Paludan, Sören R, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • DNA-stimulated cell death: implications for host defence, inflammatory diseases and cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Reviews Immunology. - 1474-1733. ; 19:3, s. 141-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The immune system detects disturbances in homeostasis that occur during infection, sterile tissue damage and cancer. This initiates immune responses that seek to eliminate the trigger of immune activation and to re-establish homeostasis. At the same time, these mechanisms can also play a crucial role in the progression of disease. The occurrence of DNA in the cytosol constitutes a potent trigger for the innate immune system, governing the production of key inflammatory cytokines such as type I interferons and IL-1 beta. More recently, it has become clear that cytosolic DNA also triggers other biological responses, including various forms of programmed cell death. In this article, we review the emerging literature on the pathways governing DNA-stimulated cell death and the current knowledge on how these processes shape immune responses to exogenous and endogenous challenges.
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