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1.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:10, s. 1171-1184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.
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2.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.
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3.
  • Göpel, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels contributes to rhythmic firing of action potentials in mouse pancreatic beta cells
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Physiology. - : Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. - 0022-1295 .- 1540-7748. ; 114:6, s. 759-770
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have applied the perforated patch whole-cell technique to beta cells within intact pancreatic islets to identify the current underlying the glucose-induced rhythmic firing of action potentials. Trains of depolarizations (to simulate glucose-induced electrical activity) resulted in the gradual (time constant: 2.3 s) development of a small (<0.8 nS) K(+) conductance. The current was dependent on Ca(2+) influx but unaffected by apamin and charybdotoxin, two blockers of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and was insensitive to tolbutamide (a blocker of ATP-regulated K(+) channels) but partially (>60%) blocked by high (10-20 mM) concentrations of tetraethylammonium. Upon cessation of electrical stimulation, the current deactivated exponentially with a time constant of 6.5 s. This is similar to the interval between two successive bursts of action potentials. We propose that this Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current plays an important role in the generation of oscillatory electrical activity in the beta cell.
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4.
  • Nagaraj, Vini, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes caused by reduced plasma membrane cholesterol
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 30:10, s. 1059-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes.
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5.
  • Rosengren, A. H., et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of alpha2A-adrenergic receptors contributes to type 2 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 327:5962, s. 217-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several common genetic variations have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but the exact disease mechanisms are still poorly elucidated. Using congenic strains from the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat, we identified a 1.4-megabase genomic locus that was linked to impaired insulin granule docking at the plasma membrane and reduced beta cell exocytosis. In this locus, Adra2a, encoding the alpha2A-adrenergic receptor [alpha(2A)AR], was significantly overexpressed. Alpha(2A)AR mediates adrenergic suppression of insulin secretion. Pharmacological receptor antagonism, silencing of receptor expression, or blockade of downstream effectors rescued insulin secretion in congenic islets. Furthermore, we identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human ADRA2A gene for which risk allele carriers exhibited overexpression of alpha(2A)AR, reduced insulin secretion, and increased type 2 diabetes risk. Human pancreatic islets from risk allele carriers exhibited reduced granule docking and secreted less insulin in response to glucose; both effects were counteracted by pharmacological alpha(2A)AR antagonists.
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6.
  • Seiron, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional analysis of islets of Langerhans from organ donors of different ages
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 16:3 March
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin secretion is impaired with increasing age. In this study, we aimed to determine whether aging induces specific transcriptional changes in human islets. Laser capture microdissection was used to extract pancreatic islet tissue from 37 deceased organ donors aged 1–81 years. The transcriptomes of the extracted islets were analysed using Ion AmpliSeq sequencing. 346 genes that co-vary significantly with age were found. There was an increased transcription of genes linked to senescence, and several aspects of the cell cycle machinery were downregulated with increasing age. We detected numerous genes not linked to aging in previous studies likely because earlier studies analysed islet cells isolated by enzymatic digestion which might affect the islet transcriptome. Among the novel genes demonstrated to correlate with age, we found an upregulation of SPP1 encoding osteopontin. In beta cells, osteopontin has been seen to be protective against both cytotoxicity and hyperglycaemia. In summary, we present a transcriptional profile of aging in human islets and identify genes that could affect disease course in diabetes.
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7.
  • Taneera, Jalal, et al. (författare)
  • A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 16:1, s. 122-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks that were strongly associated with islet insulin secretion and HbA(1c). We integrated our data to form a rank list of putative T2D genes, of which CHL1, LRFN2, RASGRP1, and PPM1K were validated in INS-1 cells to influence insulin secretion, whereas GPR120 affected apoptosis in islets. Expression variation of the top 20 genes explained 24% of the variance in HbA(1c) with no claim of the direction. The data present a global map of genes associated with islet dysfunction and demonstrate the value of systems genetics for the identification of genes potentially involved in T2D.
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8.
  • Wiser, O, et al. (författare)
  • The voltage sensitive Lc-type Ca2+ channel is functionally coupled to the exocytotic machinery
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 96:1, s. 248-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although N- and P-type Ca2+ channels predominant in fast-secreting systems, Lc-type Ca2+ channels (C-class) can play a similar role in certain secretory cells and synapses. For example, in retinal bipolar cells, Ca2+ entry through the Lc channels triggers ultrafast exocytosis, and in pancreatic beta-cells, evoked secretion is highly sensitive to Ca2+. These findings suggest that a rapidly release pool of vesicles colocalizes with the Ca2+ channels to allow high Ca2+ concentration and a tight coupling of the Lc channels at the release site. In binding studies, we show that the Lc channel is physically associated with synaptotagmin (p65) and the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment proteins receptors: syntaxin and synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachent proteins receptors coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes along with the Lc channel modify the kinetic properties of the channel. The modulatory action of syntaxin can be overcome by coexpressing p65, where at a certain ratio of p65/syntaxin, the channel regains its unaltered kinetic parameters. The cytosolic region of the channel, Lc753-893, separating repeats II-III of its alpha1C subunit, interacts with p65 and "pulls" down native p65 from rat brain membranes. Lc753-893 injected into single insulin-secreting beta-cell, inhibits secretion in response to channel opening, but not in response to photolysis of caged Ca2+, nor does it affect Ca2+ current. These results suggest that Lc753-893 competes with the endogenous channel for the synaptic proteins and disrupts the spatial coupling with the secretory apparatus. The molecular organization of the Lc channel and the secretory machinery into a multiprotein complex (named excitosome) appears to be essential for an effective depolarization evoked exocytosis.
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9.
  • Zhou, Yuedan, et al. (författare)
  • TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:24, s. 6419-6431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D.
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10.
  • Abels, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CART is overexpressed in human type 2 diabetic islets and inhibits glucagon secretion and increases insulin secretion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:9, s. 1928-1937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Insufficient insulin release and hyperglucagonaemia are culprits in type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, encoded by Cartpt) affects islet hormone secretion and beta cell survival in vitro in rats, and Cart−/− mice have diminished insulin secretion. We aimed to test if CART is differentially regulated in human type 2 diabetic islets and if CART affects insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro in humans and in vivo in mice. Methods: CART expression was assessed in human type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control pancreases and rodent models of diabetes. Insulin and glucagon secretion was examined in isolated islets and in vivo in mice. Ca2+ oscillation patterns and exocytosis were studied in mouse islets. Results: We report an important role of CART in human islet function and glucose homeostasis in mice. CART was found to be expressed in human alpha and beta cells and in a subpopulation of mouse beta cells. Notably, CART expression was several fold higher in islets of type 2 diabetic humans and rodents. CART increased insulin secretion in vivo in mice and in human and mouse islets. Furthermore, CART increased beta cell exocytosis, altered the glucose-induced Ca2+ signalling pattern in mouse islets from fast to slow oscillations and improved synchronisation of the oscillations between different islet regions. Finally, CART reduced glucagon secretion in human and mouse islets, as well as in vivo in mice via diminished alpha cell exocytosis. Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that CART is a regulator of glucose homeostasis and could play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Based on the ability of CART to increase insulin secretion and reduce glucagon secretion, CART-based agents could be a therapeutic modality in type 2 diabetes.
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