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Sökning: WFRF:(Rheindt Frank E.)

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1.
  • Alstrom, P., et al. (författare)
  • Complete species-level phylogeny of the leaf warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) radiation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - : ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 126, s. 141-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The leaf warbler radiation (Aves: Phylloscopidae) has undergone a c. 50% increase in the number of recognised species over the last three decades, mainly as a result of analyses of vocalisations and DNA. Using a multilocus dataset for all of the species in this family, and multispecies coalescent-based as well as concatenation methods, we provide the first complete species-level phylogeny for this important group, as well as an estimate of the timing of diversification. The most recent common ancestor for the family was dated at 11.7 million years ago (mya) (95% highest posterior density 9.8-13.7 mya), and divergence times between sister species ranged from 0.5 mya (0.3-0.8 mya) to 6.1 mya (4.8-7.5 mya). Based on our results, we support synonymising Seicercus with Phylloscopus, which results in a monogeneric Phylloscopidae. We discuss the pros and cons of this treatment, and we argue against proliferation of taxonomic names, and conclude that a large monogeneric Phylloscopidae leads to the fewest taxonomic changes compared to traditional classifications. We briefly discuss morphological evolution in the light of the phylogeny. The time calibrated phylogeny is a major improvement compared to previous studies based on a smaller number of species and loci and can provide a basis for future studies of other aspects of phylloscopid evolution.
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2.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
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3.
  • Cros, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Fine‐scale barriers to connectivity across a fragmented South‐East Asian landscape in six songbird species
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary Applications. - 1752-4571 .- 1752-4571. ; 13:5, s. 1026-1036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Habitat  fragmentation  is  a major  extinction  driver.  Despite  dramatically  increas-ing fragmentation across the globe, its specific impacts on population connectivityacross species with differing life histories remain difficult to characterize, let alonequantify. Here, we investigate patterns of population connectivity in six songbirdspecies from Singapore, a highly fragmented tropical rainforest island. Using massivepanels of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms across dozens of samplesper species, we examined population genetic diversity, inbreeding, gene flow andconnectivity among species along a spectrum of ecological specificities. We found ahigher resilience to habitat fragmentation in edge-tolerant and forest-canopy speciesas compared to forest-dependent understorey insectivores. The latter exhibited lev-els of genetic diversity up to three times lower in Singapore than in populations fromcontiguous forest elsewhere. Using dense genomic and geographic sampling, weidentified individual barriers such as reservoirs that effectively minimize gene flowin sensitive understorey birds, revealing that terrestrial forest species may exhibitlevels of sensitivity to fragmentation far greater than previously expected. This studyprovides a blueprint for conservation genomics at small scales with a view to iden-tifying preferred locations for habitat corridors, flagging candidate populations forrestocking with translocated individuals and improving the design of future reserves.
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6.
  • Gwee, Chyi Yin, et al. (författare)
  • Cryptic diversity in Cyornis (Ayes : Muscicapidae) jungle-flycatchers flagged by simple bioacoustic approaches
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0024-4082 .- 1096-3642. ; 186:3, s. 725-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite the ongoing taxonomic revolution incorporating multiple species delimitation methods, knowledge gaps persist in the taxonomy of comparatively well-studied animal groups such as birds. Morphologically cryptic species risk slipping under the conservation radar, as they get mistakenly united with other species. Here, we employed six to 11 vocal parameters of each population to examine the species delimitation of nine Cyornis jungle-flycatcher species complexes distributed across Asia. We found moderate to strong vocal evidence for the taxonomic elevation of ten cryptic Cyornis species. Additionally, we conducted mitochondrial and genome-wide SNP analyses for two of the Cyornis complexes to examine the effectiveness of bioacoustics as a tool for avian species delineation and found congruent results between vocal and molecular data. Therefore, we propose a taxonomic reclassification of the complicated Cyornis species complexes and recommend routine application of bioacoustics in avian taxonomic classification.
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8.
  • Suh, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83-99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25-22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20-17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity.
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9.
  • Tan, David J.X., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genome and genome-wide SNPs reveal early fragmentation effects in an edge-tolerant songbird population across an urbanized tropical metropolis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although edge-tolerant species are known to benefit from habitat fragmentation, less is known about the population genetic impacts fragmentation may exert on edge-tolerant species. We examined the landscape genomic structure of an edge-tolerant forest-dependent bird species, the Striped Tit-Babbler Mixornis gularis, in the heavily urbanized island of Singapore to determine if two centuries of fragmentation have led to signs of isolation and loss of population-genetic diversity in different parts of the island. We obtained a high-quality complete reference genome with 78x coverage. Using almost 4000 SNPs from double-digest RAD-Sequencing across 46 individuals, we found that the population has likely experienced a recent contraction in effective population size and presently exhibits low population genetic diversity. Using empirical and simulation-based landscape genomic analyses, we also found that the subtle population genetic structure observed in the Striped Tit-Babbler population in Singapore is likely driven by isolation by distance resulting from limited dispersal. Our results demonstrate that population genetic impoverishment and subdivision can accumulate at relatively rapid rates in edge-tolerant bird species such as the Striped Tit-Babbler as a result of fragmentation, and that subtle spatial genetic structure can be detected over fine spatial and temporal scales using relatively few multilocus genomic SNPs.
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10.
  • Zhang, Dezhi, et al. (författare)
  • "Ghost Introgression" As a Cause of Deep Mitochondrial Divergence in a Bird Species Complex
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 36:11, s. 2375-2386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the absence of nuclear-genomic differentiation between two populations, deep mitochondrial divergence (DMD) is a form of mito-nuclear discordance. Such instances of DMD are rare and might variably be explained by unusual cases of female-linked selection, by male-biased dispersal, by "speciation reversal" or by mitochondrial capture through genetic introgression. Here, we analyze DMD in an Asian Phylloscopus leaf warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) complex. Bioacoustic, morphological, and genomic data demonstrate close similarity between the taxa affinis and occisinensis, even though DMD previously led to their classification as two distinct species. Using population genomic and comparative genomic methods on 45 whole genomes, including historical reconstructions of effective population size, genomic peaks of differentiation and genomic linkage, we infer that the form affinis is likely the product of a westward expansion in which it replaced a now-extinct congener that was the donor of its mtDNA and small portions of its nuclear genome. This study provides strong evidence of "ghost introgression" as the cause of DMD, and we suggest that "ghost introgression" may be a widely overlooked phenomenon in nature.
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