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Sökning: WFRF:(Ringdahl Ulrika)

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  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Streptokinase activates plasminogen bound to human group C and group G streptococci through M-like proteins
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Biochemistry. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0014-2956. ; 222:2, s. 76-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An ability to interact with plasminogen or plasmin could provide micro-organisms with a mechanism for invasion. Thus, group A, C and G streptococci secrete streptokinase which binds and activates plasminogen. Some streptococci also express surface structures which bind plasminogen without causing its activation. Plasminogen-binding surface proteins were extracted from one group C and one group G streptococcal isolate. Both proteins were found to bind plasmin, fibrinogen and serum albumin in addition to plasminogen. Gene fragments encoding the streptococcal proteins were amplified by PCR and were subsequently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence determination revealed for both genes open reading frames encoding proteins which contained repetitive domains and a carboxyl-terminal unrepeated region that were typical of M and M-like proteins. Though the amino-terminal regions of the group C and G streptococcal proteins demonstrated a rather high overall similarity between themselves, they were not similar to the variable regions of other M-like proteins with one exception: there was a 46% identity between the first 22 amino acids of the group G streptococcal protein and the corresponding sequence of PAM, the plasminogen-binding M-like protein of type M53 group A streptococci. Like the proteins extracted from the streptococci, the recombinant proteins bound plasminogen, fibrinogen and albumin. The three plasma proteins bound to separate sites on the streptococcal M-like proteins. Plasminogen bound by the group C and G streptococcal proteins was readily activated by streptokinase, providing evidence for a functional link between the secreted plasminogen-activator and proteins exposed on the bacterial surface.
  • Drobin, Kimi, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular Profiling for Predictors of Radiosensitivity in Patients with Breast or Head-and-Neck Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancers. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6694. ; 12:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nearly half of all cancers are treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with other treatments, where damage to normal tissues is a limiting factor for the treatment. Radiotherapy-induced adverse health effects, mostly of importance for cancer patients with long-term survival, may appear during or long time after finishing radiotherapy and depending on the patient's radiosensitivity. Currently, there is no assay available that can reliably predict the individual's response to radiotherapy. We profiled two study sets from breast (n = 29) and head-and-neck cancer patients (n = 74) that included radiosensitive patients and matched radioresistant controls. We studied 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 genes by DNA genotyping and 130 circulating proteins by affinity-based plasma proteomics. In both study sets, we discovered several plasma proteins with the predictive power to find radiosensitive patients (adjusted p < 0.05) and validated the two most predictive proteins (THPO and STIM1) by sandwich immunoassays. By integrating genotypic and proteomic data into an analysis model, it was found that the proteins CHIT1, PDGFB, PNKD, RP2, SERPINC1, SLC4A, STIM1, and THPO, as well as the VEGFA gene variant rs69947, predicted radiosensitivity of our breast cancer (AUC = 0.76) and head-and-neck cancer (AUC = 0.89) patients. In conclusion, circulating proteins and a SNP variant of VEGFA suggest that processes such as vascular growth capacity, immune response, DNA repair and oxidative stress/hypoxia may be involved in an individual's risk of experiencing radiation-induced toxicity.
  • Gerdtsson, Anna Sandström, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma protein profiling in a stage defined pancreatic cancer cohort – Implications for early diagnosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1574-7891. ; 10:8, s. 1305-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease where detection preceding clinical symptoms significantly increases the life expectancy of patients. In this study, a recombinant antibody microarray platform was used to analyze 213 Chinese plasma samples from PDAC patients and normal control (NC) individuals. The cohort was stratified according to disease stage, i.e. resectable disease (stage I/II), locally advanced (stage III) and metastatic disease (stage IV). Support vector machine analysis showed that all PDAC stages could be discriminated from controls and that the accuracy increased with disease progression, from stage I to IV. Patients with stage I/II PDAC could be discriminated from NC with high accuracy based on a plasma protein signature, indicating a possibility for early diagnosis and increased detection rate of surgically resectable tumors.
  • Ghatnekar, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling the benefits of early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer using a biomarker signature.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 133:10, s. 2392-2397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of 3-4%. This is mainly due to late diagnosis because of diffuse symptoms, where 80-85% of the patients are inoperable. Consequently, early diagnosis would be of significant benefit, resulting in a potential 5-year survival of 30-40%. However, new technologies must be carefully evaluated concerning effectiveness and healthcare costs. We have developed a framework for modelling cost and health effects from early detection of PC, which for the first time allowed us to analyse its cost-effectiveness. A probabilistic cohort model for estimating costs and quality adjusted life-years (QALY) arising from screening for PC, compared to a "wait-and-see"-approach, was designed. The test accuracy, Swedish survival and costs by tumour stage, expected life gain from early detection and pre-test probabilities in risk-groups, were retrieved from previous investigations. In a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patient (incidence 0.71%) the incremental cost per QALY gained (ICER) was €13,500, which is considered cost-effective in Europe. Results were mainly sensitive to the incidence with the ICER ranging from €315 to €204,000 (familial PC 35% and general population 0.046%, respectively). This is the first study focusing on clinical implementation of advanced testing and what is required for novel technologies in cancer care to be cost-effective. The model clearly demonstrated the potential of multiplexed proteomic-testing of PC and also identified the requirements for test accuracy. Consequently, it can serve as a model for assessing the possibilities to introduce advanced test platforms also for other cancer indications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Khil, J, et al. (författare)
  • Plasminogen enhances virulence of group A streptococci by streptokinase-dependent and streptokinase-independent mechanisms
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 188:4, s. 497-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interactions between host plasminogen (Plg) and streptokinase (SK) secreted by group A streptococci ( GAS) have been hypothesized to promote bacterial invasion of tissues. The virulence of GAS strain UMAA2616, after being subcutaneously inoculated into mice, was studied. Skin lesions and mortality were observed after inoculation of 7 x 10(6) cfu. Coadministration of human Plg with UMAA2616 markedly increased virulence. SK-deficient UMAA2616 (UMAA2616-SK-) was generated. Mean skin-lesion area and mortality, after bacterial inoculation (3 x 10(5) cfu), were significantly greater with UMAA2616 in the presence of human Plg than with UMAA2616-SK- in the presence of human Plg (P = .0001). Human Plg also enhanced UMAA2616-SK- vir ulence. Exogenous human Plg enhanced the virulence of MGAS166, a human clinical isolate. These findings suggest that SK-Plg interactions are an important determinant of GAS invasiveness in vivo and that both SK and host Plg activators appear to promote virulence of GAS by catalyzing plasmin formation.
  • McArthur, Jason D, et al. (författare)
  • Allelic variants of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes display functional differences in plasminogen activation.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - : The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 22:9, s. 3146-3153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A common mammalian defense mechanism employed to prevent systemic dissemination of invasive bacteria involves occlusion of local microvasculature and encapsulation of bacteria within fibrin networks. Acquisition of plasmin activity at the bacterial cell surface circumvents this defense mechanism, allowing invasive disease initiation. To facilitate this process, S. pyogenes secretes streptokinase, a plasminogen-activating protein. Streptokinase polymorphism exhibited by S. pyogenes isolates is well characterized. However, the functional differences displayed by these variants and the biological significance of this variation has not been elucidated. Phylogenetic analysis of ska sequences from 28 S. pyogenes isolates revealed 2 main sequence clusters (clusters 1 and 2). All strains secreted streptokinase, as determined by Western blotting, and were capable of acquiring cell surface plasmin activity after incubation in human plasma. Whereas culture supernatants from strains containing cluster 1 ska alleles also displayed soluble plasminogen activation activity, supernatants from strains containing cluster 2 ska alleles did not. Furthermore, plasminogen activation activity in culture supernatants from strains containing cluster 2 ska alleles could only be detected when plasminogen was prebound with fibrinogen. This study indicates that variant streptokinase proteins secreted by S. pyogenes isolates display differing plasminogen activation characteristics and may therefore play distinct roles in disease pathogenesis.-McArthur, J. D., McKay, F. C., Ramachandran, V., Shyam, P., Cork, A. J., Sanderson-Smith, M. L., Cole, J. N., Ringdahl, U., Sjöbring, U., Ranson, M., Walker, M. J. Allelic variants of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes display functional differences in plasminogen activation.
  • Ringdahl, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • A role for the fibrinogen-binding regions of streptococcal M proteins in phagocytosis resistance
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958 .- 0950-382X. ; 37:6, s. 1318-1326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All virulent group A streptococcal isolates bind fibrinogen, a property that is closely linked to expression of type-specific antiphagocytic surface molecules designated M proteins. Here we show that although the M proteins from two different strains, M1 and M5, both bind fibrinogen with high affinity, they interact with different regions in the ligand. Moreover, mapping experiments demonstrated that the fibrinogen-binding regions in the M1 and M5 proteins are quite dissimilar at the amino acid sequence level and that they bind to different regions in the plasma protein. In spite of these differences, the fibrinogen-binding regions of M1 and M5 could both be shown to contribute to streptococcal survival in human blood, providing evidence for the distinct function of a plasma protein interaction in bacterial pathogenesis.
  • Ringdahl, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular co-operation between protein PAM and streptokinase for plasmin acquisition by Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 1083-351X. ; 273:11, s. 6424-6430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterial surface-associated plasmin formation is believed to contribute to invasion, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To define the components necessary for plasmin generation on group A streptococci we used strain AP53 which exposes an M-like protein ("PAM") that contains a plasminogen-binding sequence with two 13-amino acid residues long tandem repeats (a1 and a2). Utilizing an Escherichia coli-streptococcal shuttle vector, we replaced a 29-residue long sequence segment of Arp4, an M-like protein that does not bind plasminogen, with a single (a1) or the combined a1a2 repeats of PAM. When expressed in E. coli, the purified chimeric Arp/PAM proteins both bound plasminogen, as well as plasmin, and when used to transform group A streptococcal strains lacking the plasminogen-binding ability, transformants with the Arp/PAM constructs efficiently bound plasminogen. Moreover, when grown in the presence of plasminogen, both Arp/PAM- and PAM-expressing streptococci acquired surface-bound plasmin. In contrast, plasminogen activation failed to occur on PAM- and Arp/PAM-expressing streptococci carrying an inactivated streptokinase gene: this block was overcome by exogenous streptokinase. Together, these results provide evidence for an unusual co-operation between a surface-bound protein, PAM, and a secreted protein, streptokinase, resulting in bacterial acquisition of a host protease that is likely to spur parasite invasion of host tissues.
  • Ringdahl, Ulrika (författare)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes and its interactions with the human host
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We have found that a set of group A streptococcal strains, primarily associated with skin infections, express surface-associated M proteins that bind plasminogen and plasmin with high affinity. The binding is mediated by a common 13 amino acid internal repeated sequence located in the NH2-terminal surface-exposed portion of these M proteins. It could be demonstrated that plasminogen, absorbed by the bacteria when grown in plasma, could be activated by exogenous and endogenous streptokinase, a potent plasminogen activating protein that is secreted by group A streptococci, thereby providing the bacteria with a surface-associated enzyme that could act on fibrin films or other tissue barriers in the infected host. While only a subset of these bacteria bind plasminogen, almost all group A streptococcal strains bind fibrinogen. It is known that this property is coupled to members of the M protein family. We first identified the fibrinogen-binding region in the type M1 and M5 proteins and then generated an isogenic strain expressing an M5 protein lacking the fibrinogen-binding region. This strain had lost the ability to resist phagocytosis in human blood, a feature that is characteristic for group A streptococci. Furthermore, streptococcal mutants expressing versions of the fibrinogen non-binding M4 protein grafted with the fibrinogen-binding regions from M1 or M5 were generated. The manipulation converted these strains from phagocytosis sensitive to phagocytosis resistant, demonstrating the importance of the fibrinogen-binding capacity for bacterial survival. The ability to bind fibrinogen also gives the bacteria the ability to interact with platelets. Fibrinogen serves as a link between the bacteria and the platelet and the subsequent binding of antibodies directed against the bacteria to the FcgRIIa receptor can induce platelet activation and aggregation, a property that may contribute to acute complications in severe group A streptococcal infection.
  • Sjöbring, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of plasminogen-binding M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Methods. - : Elsevier. - 1095-9130. ; 21:2, s. 143-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Group A streptococci are common human pathogens that cause a variety of infections. They express M proteins which are important cell wall-bound type-specific virulence factors. We have found that a set of strains, associated primarily with skin infections, express M proteins that bind plasminogen and plasmin with high affinity. The binding is mediated by a 13-amino-acid internal repeated sequence located in the N-terminal surface-exposed portion of these M proteins. This sequence binds to kringle 2 in plasminogen, a domain that is not involved in the interaction with streptokinase, a potent group A streptococcal activator of plasminogen. It could be demonstrated that plasminogen, absorbed from plasma by growing group A streptococci expressing the plasminogen-binding M proteins, could be activated by exogenous and endogenous streptokinase, thereby providing the bacteria with a surface-associated enzyme that could act on the tissue barriers in the infected host.
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