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Sökning: WFRF:(Ripatti Samuli)

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Borén, Jan, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of pnpla3 i148m on hepatic lipid and very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in humans.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 1365-2796. ; 291:2, s. 218-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PNPLA3-148M variant is associated with liver steatosis but its influence on metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins remains unclear. Here we investigated the kinetics of large, triglyceride-rich VLDL1 and smaller VLDL2 in homozygotes for the PNPLA3-148M variant.The kinetics of apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL subfractions was analysed in nine subjects homozygous for PNPLA3-148M and nine subjects homozygous for PNPLA3-148I (controls). Liver fat was >3-fold higher in the 148M subjects. Production rates for apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL1 did not differ significantly between the two groups. Likewise, production rates for VLDL2 -apoB100 and -triglyceride, and fractional clearance rates for both apoB100 and triglyceride in VLDL1 and VLDL2 , were not significantly different.Despite the higher liver fat content in PNPLA3-148M homozygotes, there was no increase in VLDL production. Equally, VLDL production was maintained at normal levels despite the putative impairment in cytosolic lipid hydrolysis in these subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Borén, Jan, 1963, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of TM6SF2 E167K on hepatic lipid and very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in humans.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JCI insight. - 2379-3708. ; 5:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation. The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) E167K genetic variant associates with NAFLD and with reduced plasma triglyceride levels in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We hypothesized that TM6SF2 E167K affects hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, and studied the kinetics of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) and triglyceride metabolism in VLDL in homozygous subjects. In 10 homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers and 10 matched controls, we employed stable-isotope tracer and compartmental modeling techniques to determine apoB100 and triglyceride kinetics in the two major VLDL subfractions: large triglyceride-rich VLDL1 and smaller, less triglyceride-rich VLDL2. VLDL1-apoB100 production was markedly reduced in homozygote TM6SF2 E167K carriers compared to controls. Likewise, VLDL1-triglyceride production was 35% lower in the TM6SF2 E167K carriers. In contrast, the direct production rates for VLDL2-apoB100 and triglyceride were not different between carriers and controls. In conclusion, the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant was linked to a specific reduction in hepatic secretion of large triglyceride-rich VLDL1. The impaired secretion of VLDL1 explains the reduced plasma triglyceride concentration, and provides a basis for understanding the lower risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the TM6SF2 E167K genetic variant.Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT04209816.
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3.
  • Aho, Vilma, et al. (författare)
  • Partial Sleep Restriction Activates Immune Response-Related Gene Expression Pathways : Experimental and Epidemiological Studies in Humans
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-kappa B signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.
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4.
  • Ahuja, Vasudha, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy of 1-Hour Plasma Glucose During the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults : A Meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 44:4, s. 1062-1069
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: One-hour plasma glucose (1-h PG) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is an accurate predictor of type 2 diabetes. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the optimum cutoff of 1-h PG for detection of type 2 diabetes using 2-h PG as the gold standard. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 15 studies with 35,551 participants from multiple ethnic groups (53.8% Caucasian) and 2,705 newly detected cases of diabetes based on 2-h PG during OGTT. We excluded cases identified only by elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or HbA1c. We determined the optimal 1-h PG threshold and its accuracy at this cutoff for detection of diabetes (2-h PG ≥11.1 mmol/L) using a mixed linear effects regression model with different weights to sensitivity/specificity (2/3, 1/2, and 1/3). RESULTS: Three cutoffs of 1-h PG, at 10.6 mmol/L, 11.6 mmol/L, and 12.5 mmol/L, had sensitivities of 0.95, 0.92, and 0.87 and specificities of 0.86, 0.91, and 0.94 at weights 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3, respectively. The cutoff of 11.6 mmol/L (95% CI 10.6, 12.6) had a sensitivity of 0.92 (0.87, 0.95), specificity of 0.91 (0.88, 0.93), area under the curve 0.939 (95% confidence region for sensitivity at a given specificity: 0.904, 0.946), and a positive predictive value of 45%. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-h PG of ≥11.6 mmol/L during OGTT has a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting type 2 diabetes. Prescreening with a diabetes-specific risk calculator to identify high-risk individuals is suggested to decrease the proportion of false-positive cases. Studies including other ethnic groups and assessing complication risk are warranted.
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5.
  • Artigas Soler, María, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1082-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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6.
  • Aulchenko, Yurii S, et al. (författare)
  • Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:1, s. 47-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-11); LDL, P = 2.6 x 10(-10)), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 x 10(-10)), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 x 10(-16)), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 x 10(-9)), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-10); LDL, P = 4.4 x 10(-13)) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 x 10(-11)). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors.
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7.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:5, s. 501-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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8.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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9.
  • Demirkan, Ayse, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 19:7, s. 813-819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture of circulating lipids involves a number of undiscovered variants with very small effects, and that increasing GWAS sample sizes will enable the identification of novel variants that regulate lipid levels.
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10.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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