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Sökning: WFRF:(Risacher Shannon L.)

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1.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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2.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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3.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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4.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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5.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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6.
  • Groot, Colin, et al. (författare)
  • Differential patterns of gray matter volumes and associated gene expression profiles in cognitively-defined Alzheimer's disease subgroups
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage: Clinical. - : Elsevier. - 2213-1582. ; 30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) varies widely across individuals but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are largely unknown. Here, we compared regional gray matter (GM) volumes and associated gene expression profiles between cognitively-defined subgroups of amyloid-β positive individuals clinically diagnosed with AD dementia (age: 66 ± 7, 47% male, MMSE: 21 ± 5). All participants underwent neuropsychological assessment with tests covering memory, executive-functioning, language and visuospatial-functioning domains. Subgroup classification was achieved using a psychometric framework that assesses which cognitive domain shows substantial relative impairment compared to the intra-individual average across domains, which yielded the following subgroups in our sample; AD-Memory (n = 41), AD-Executive (n = 117), AD-Language (n = 33), AD-Visuospatial (n = 171). We performed voxel-wise contrasts of GM volumes derived from 3Tesla structural MRI between subgroups and controls (n = 127, age 58 ± 9, 42% male, MMSE 29 ± 1), and observed that differences in regional GM volumes compared to controls closely matched the respective cognitive profiles. Specifically, we detected lower medial temporal lobe GM volumes in AD-Memory, lower fronto-parietal GM volumes in AD-Executive, asymmetric GM volumes in the temporal lobe (left < right) in AD-Language, and lower GM volumes in posterior areas in AD-Visuospatial. In order to examine possible biological drivers of these differences in regional GM volumes, we correlated subgroup-specific regional GM volumes to brain-wide gene expression profiles based on a stereotactic characterization of the transcriptional architecture of the human brain as provided by the Allen human brain atlas. Gene-set enrichment analyses revealed that variations in regional expression of genes involved in processes like mitochondrial respiration and metabolism of proteins were associated with patterns of regional GM volume across multiple subgroups. Other gene expression vs GM volume-associations were only detected in particular subgroups, e.g., genes involved in the cell cycle for AD-Memory, specific sets of genes related to protein metabolism in AD-Language, and genes associated with modification of gene expression in AD-Visuospatial. We conclude that cognitively-defined AD subgroups show neurobiological differences, and distinct biological pathways may be involved in the emergence of these differences.
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7.
  • Groot, Colin, et al. (författare)
  • Differential trajectories of hypometabolism across cognitively-defined Alzheimer's disease subgroups
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage: Clinical. - : Elsevier. - 2213-1582. ; 31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disentangling biologically distinct subgroups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may facilitate a deeper understanding of the neurobiology underlying clinical heterogeneity. We employed longitudinal [18F]FDG-PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) to map hypometabolism across cognitively-defined AD subgroups. Participants were 384 amyloid-positive individuals with an AD dementia diagnosis from ADNI who had a total of 1028 FDG-scans (mean time between first and last scan: 1.6 ± 1.8 years). These participants were categorized into subgroups on the basis of substantial impairment at time of dementia diagnosis in a specific cognitive domain relative to the average across domains. This approach resulted in groups of AD-Memory (n = 135), AD-Executive (n = 8), AD-Language (n = 22), AD-Visuospatial (n = 44), AD-Multiple Domains (n = 15) and AD-No Domains (for whom no domain showed substantial relative impairment; n = 160). Voxelwise contrasts against controls revealed that all AD-subgroups showed progressive hypometabolism compared to controls across temporoparietal regions at time of AD diagnosis. Voxelwise and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based linear mixed model analyses revealed there were also subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns and trajectories. The AD-Memory group had more pronounced hypometabolism compared to all other groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, and faster decline in metabolism in the medial temporal lobe compared to AD-Visuospatial. The AD-Language group had pronounced lateral temporal hypometabolism compared to all other groups, and the pattern of metabolism was also more asymmetrical (left < right) than all other groups. The AD-Visuospatial group had faster decline in metabolism in parietal regions compared to all other groups, as well as faster decline in the precuneus compared to AD-Memory and AD-No Domains. Taken together, in addition to a common pattern, cognitively-defined subgroups of people with AD dementia show subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns, as well as differences in trajectories of metabolism over time. These findings provide support to the notion that cognitively-defined subgroups are biologically distinct.
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8.
  • Shahid, Syed Salman, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal-subfield microstructures and their relation to plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hippocampal subfields exhibit differential vulnerabilities to Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated pathology including abnormal accumulation of beta-amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangles. These pathological processes extensively impact on the structural and functional interconnectivities of the subfields and may explain the association between hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we investigated the degree of alterations in the microstructure of hippocampal subfields across the clinical continuum of AD. We applied a gray matter (GM) specific multi-compartment diffusion model (Cortical-NODDI) to understand the differential effects of AD pathology on the hippocampal subfield microstructure. A total of 119 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were stratified into three categories, cognitively normal (CN; N = 47), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 52), and AD (N = 19). Diffusion MRI, plasma biomarkers, and neuropsychological test scores were used to determine the association between the microstructural integrity and AD associated molecular indicators and cognition. For AD-related plasma biomarkers, we studied amyloid beta (Aβ), total tau (T-tau), and neurofilament light (NfL); for AD-related neuropsychological tests, we included the Trail Making Test (TMT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Digit Span, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Comparisons between CN and MCI showed significant microstructural alterations in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 4 and dentate gyrus (DG) region, whereas CA1-3 was the most sensitive region for the later stages in the AD clinical continuum. Among imaging metrics for microstructures, the volume fraction of isotropic diffusion for interstitial free water demonstrated the largest effect size in between-group comparisons. Regarding the plasma biomarkers, NfL appeared to be the most sensitive biomarker for associations with microstructural imaging findings in CA4-DG. CA1-3 was the subfield which had stronger correlations between cognitive performance and microstructural metrics. Particularly, poor performance in RAVLT and MoCA was associated with decreased intracellular volume fraction. Overall, our findings support the value of tissue-specific microstructural imaging for providing pathologically relevant information manifesting in the plasma biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes across various stages of AD.
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