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  • Carlsson, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Novel and established anthropometric measures and the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease: a cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5497 .- 0307-0565. ; 37:12, s. 1579-1585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare novel and established anthropometrical measures in their ability to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to determine whether they improve risk prediction beyond classical risk factors in a cohort study of 60-year-old men and women. We also stratified the results according to gender to identify possible differences between men and women. Furthermore, we aimed to replicate our findings in a large independent cohort (The Malmo Diet and Cancer study-cardiovascular cohort). METHODS: This was a population-based study of 1751 men and 1990 women, aged 60 years and without CVD at baseline, with 375 incident cases of CVD during 11 years of follow-up. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured at baseline. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR), WC-to-height ratio (WCHR) and SAD-to-height ratio (SADHR) were calculated. RESULTS: All anthropometric measures predicted CVD in unadjusted Cox regression models per s.d. increment (hazard ratios, 95% confidence interval), while significant associations after adjustments for established risk CVD factors were noted for WHHR 1.20 (1.08-1.33), WHR 1.14 (1.02-1.28), SAD 1.13 (1.02-1.25) and SADHR 1.17 (1.06-1.28). WHHR had higher increases in C-statistics, and model improvements (likelihood ratio tests (P<0.001)). In the replication study (MDC-CC, n = 5180), WHHR was the only measure that improved Cox regression models in men (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: WHHR, a new measure reflecting body fat distribution, showed the highest risk estimates after adjustments for established CVD risk factors. These findings were verified in men but not women in an independent cohort.
  • Uusitupa, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome - a randomized study (SYSDIET)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796. ; 274:1, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55years, BMI 31.6kgm-2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmolL-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P=0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P=0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P=0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37ngL-1, P= 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P=0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P=0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
  • Carlsson, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on body weight and sex - Results from two community based cohort studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. - : Elsevier. - 0939-4753 .- 1590-3729. ; 24:8, s. 891-899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To study waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR) as predictors of CVD, in men and women stratified by BMI (cut-off >= 25). Methods and results: A cohort of n = 3741 (53% women) 60-year old individuals without CVD was followed for 11-years (375 CVD cases). To replicate the results, we also assessed another large independent cohort; The Malmo Diet and Cancer study - cardiovascular cohort (MDCC, (n = 5180, 60% women, 602 CVD cases during 16-years). After adjustment for established risk factors in normal-weight women, the hazard ratio (HR) per one standard deviation (SD) were; WHR; 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.70), WC; 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20), SAD; 1.25 (95% CI 0.74-2.11), and WHHR; 1.97 (95% CI 1.40-2.78). In men the association with WHR, WHHR and WC were not significant, whereas SAD was the only measure that significantly predicted CVD in men (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.04-1.35). After adjustments for established risk factors in overweight/obese women, none of the measures were significantly associated with CVD risk. In men, however, all measures were significant predictors; WHR; 1.24 (955 CI 1.04-1.47), WC 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42), SAD 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.46), and WHHR; 1.23 (95% CI 1.05-1.44). Only the findings in men with BMI >= 25 were verified in MDCC. Conclusion: In normal weight individuals, WHHR and WHR were the best predictors in women, whereas SAD was the only independent predictor in men. Among overweight/obese individuals all measures failed to predict CVD in women, whereas WHHR was the strongest predictor after adjustments for CVD risk factors in men.
  • Feldreich, T., et al. (författare)
  • Urinary osteopontin predicts incident chronic kidney disease, while plasma osteopontin predicts cardiovascular death in elderly men
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: CardioRenal Medicine. - 1664-3828. ; 7:3, s. 245-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objectives: The matricellular protein osteopontin is involved in the pathogenesis of both kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, whether circulating and urinary osteopontin levels are associated with the risk of these diseases is less studied.Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements: A community-based cohort of elderly men (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM]; n = 741; mean age: 77 years) was used to study the associations between plasma and urinary osteopontin, incident chronic kidney disease, and the risk of cardiovascular death during a median of 8 years of follow-up.Results: There was no significant cross-sectional correlation between plasma and urinary osteopontin (Spearman ρ = 0.07, p = 0.13). Higher urinary osteopontin, but not plasma osteopontin, was associated with incident chronic kidney disease in multivariable models adjusted for age, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation [SD] of urinary osteopontin, 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.02, p = 0.048). Conversely, plasma osteopontin, but not urinary osteopontin, was independently associated with cardiovascular death (multivariable hazard ratio per SD increase, 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.58, p < 0.001, and 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.26, p = 0.99, respectively). The addition of plasma osteopontin to a model with established cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased the C-statistics for the prediction of cardiovascular death (p < 0.002).Conclusions: Higher urinary osteopontin specifically predicts incident chronic kidney disease, while plasma osteopontin specifically predicts cardiovascular death. Our data put forward osteopontin as an important factor in the detrimental interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system. The clinical implications, and why plasma and urinary osteopontin mirror different pathologies, remain to be established.
  • Harris, William S., et al. (författare)
  • Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Associations between of omega-3 fatty acids and mortality are not clear. Here the authors report that, based on a pooled analysis of 17 prospective cohort studies, higher blood omega-3 fatty acid levels correlate with lower risk of all-cause mortality. The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.
  • Huang, X, et al. (författare)
  • Serum fatty acid patterns, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 275:1, s. 71-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The causes of the multiple metabolic disorders of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not fully known. We investigated the relationships between dietary fat quality, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin sensitivity and inflammation in individuals with CKD.SUBJECTS: Two population-based surveys were conducted in elderly Swedish individuals (aged 70 years) with serum cystatin C-estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL min(-1) /1.73 m(2) : the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) surveys. The present population comprised 274 men and 187 subjects (63% women) from the ULSAM and PIVUS cohorts, respectively.DESIGN: Factor analyses of serum fatty acids were used to evaluate dietary fat quality. Insulin sensitivity was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (IR) and, in ULSAM, also by euglycaemic clamp.RESULTS: Factor analyses generated two fatty acid patterns of (i) low linoleic acid (LA)/high saturated fatty acid (SFA) or (ii) high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels. In both surveys, the low LA/high SFA pattern increased the odds of having MetS [adjusted odds ratio 0.60 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.81] and 0.45 (95% CI 0.30-0.67) per SD decrease in factor score in the ULSAM and PIVUS surveys, respectively] and was directly associated with both IR and C-reactive protein. The n-3 PUFA pattern was not consistently associated with these risk factors.CONCLUSIONS: A serum fatty acid pattern reflecting low LA and high SFA was strongly associated with MetS, IR and inflammation in two independent surveys of elderly individuals with CKD. At present, there are no specific dietary guidelines for individuals with CKD; however, these findings indirectly support current recommendations to replace SFAs with PUFAs from vegetable oils.
  • Iggman, D, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer-Verlag. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 53:5, s. 850-857
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n?=?795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas–liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. Results Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r?=?-0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r?=?-0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r?=?-0.24; p?
  • Ingelsson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating retinol-binding protein 4, cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease in elderly
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 206:1, s. 239-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine relations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) to cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large community-based sample of elderly. METHODS: We evaluated cross-sectional relations of serum RBP4 to cardiovascular risk factors including anthropometrical measures, blood pressure, lipid measures, fasting glucose and insulin, body fat distribution including truncal fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and prevalent MetS in one thousand eight 70-year old participants (50% women) of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), and in five hundred seven 82-year old men from Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). In ULSAM, we also examined associations with prevalent CVD. RESULTS: RBP4 concentrations were positively correlated with serum triglycerides (r=0.30; P<0.0001 in both samples), whereas correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, total and truncal fat mass, total cholesterol, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR were weak. In multivariable-adjusted models, RBP-4 was associated with MetS (odds ratio (OR), 1.16 and 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.37 and 1.05-1.67 per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in PIVUS and ULSAM, respectively), and prior cerebrovascular disease (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.00-1.88 per 1-SD increase in ULSAM), but not with prior myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: In elderly, RBP4 concentrations were associated with MetS and its components in both sexes, and prior cerebrovascular disease in men. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that circulating RBP4 could be a marker of metabolic complications and possibly also atherosclerosis and overt CVD.
  • Jobs, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Serum cathepsin S is associated with serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 independently of obesity in elderly men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0895-4356 .- 1878-5921. ; 95:9, s. 4460-4464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Cathepsin S has been suggested provide a mechanistic link between obesity and atherosclerosis, possibly mediated via adipose tissue-derived inflammation. Previous data have shown an association between circulating cathepsin S and inflammatory markers in the obese, but to date, community-based reports are lacking. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cathepsin S and markers of cytokine-mediated inflammation in a community-based sample, with prespecified subgroup analyses in nonobese participants.Methods: Serum cathepsin S, C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6 were measured in a community-based cohort of elderly men (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men; mean age 71 years, n = 991). CRP and IL-6 were also measured at a reexamination after 7 yr.Results: After adjustment for age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, diabetes treatment, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, smoking, and leisure time physical activity, higher cathepsin S was associated with higher CRP (regression coefficient for 1 SD increase, 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.07–0.19; P < 0.001) and higher serum IL-6 (regression coefficient for 1 SD increase, 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.14; P = 0.02). These associations remained similar in normal-weight participants (body mass index <25 kg/m2, n = 375). In longitudinal analyses, higher cathepsin S at baseline was associated with higher serum CRP and IL-6 after 7 yr.Conclusions: These results provide additional evidence for the interplay between cathepsin S and inflammatory activity and suggest that this association is present also in normal-weight individuals in the community.
  • Laguzzi, F., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating fatty acids in relation to alcohol consumption : Cross-sectional results from a cohort of 60-year-old men and women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - : CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. - 0261-5614 .- 1532-1983. ; 37:6, Part A, s. 2001-2010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & aims: Alcohol consumption is considered to affect circulating fatty acids (FAs) but knowledge about specific associations is limited. We aimed to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and serum FAs in 60-year-old Swedish men and women.Methods: In a random sample of 1917 men and 2058 women residing in Stockholm county, cross-sectional associations between different categories of alcohol consumption and FAs were assessed using linear regression; beta(1) coefficients with 95% confidence interval (Cl) were calculated. Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorized as none, low (<= 9.9 g/day) (reference), moderate (10-29.9 g/day) and high (>= 30 g/day). Moderate alcohol consumption was further subdivided into consumption of beer, wine, liquor and their combinations. Thirteen serum cholesterol ester FM were measured by gas chromatography and individual FM were expressed as percentage of total FAs.Results: Increasing alcohol consumption was associated to linear increase of saturated myristic acid, monounsaturated FAs and n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) arachidonic acid, whereas linear decrease was noted for saturated pentadecanoic acid and for n-6 PUFA linoleic acid. With non-linear associations, increasing alcohol consumption also associated to decreased saturated stearic acid, n-6 PUFA dihomogamma-linolenic acid, and n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid and increased saturated palmitic acid, n-6 PUFA gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid. Among types of beverages, wine consumption was associated with n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (beta(1) 0.59; 95% CI: 030;0.88) and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (beta(1) 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30;0.78), and docosahexaenoic acid (beta(1) 0.06; 95% CI: 0.00;0.12).Conclusions: These findings may give important basis for further investigations to better understand biological mechanisms behind the dose-dependent associations between alcohol consumption and health outcomes observed in many previous studies.
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