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Sökning: WFRF:(Romain P.)

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  • Abe, O, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 365:9472, s. 1687-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects. Methods Collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken of 194 unconfounded randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that began by 1995. Many trials involved CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil), anthracycline-based combinations such as FAC (fluorouracil, doxombicin, cyclophosphamide) or FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), tamoxifen, or ovarian suppression: none involved taxanes, trastuzumab, raloxifene, or modem aromatase inhibitors. Findings Allocation to about 6 months of anthracycline-based polychemotherapy (eg, with FAC or FEC) reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by about 38% (SE 5) for women younger than 50 years of age when diagnosed and by about 20% (SE 4) for those of age 50-69 years when diagnosed, largely irrespective of the use of tamoxifen and of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal status, or other tumour characteristics. Such regimens are significantly (2p=0 . 0001 for recurrence, 2p<0 . 00001 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than CMF chemotherapy. Few women of age 70 years or older entered these chemotherapy trials. For ER-positive disease only, allocation to about 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by 31% (SE 3), largely irrespective of the use of chemotherapy and of age (<50, 50-69, &GE; 70 years), progesterone receptor status, or other tumour characteristics. 5 years is significantly (2p<0 . 00001 for recurrence, 2p=0 . 01 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than just 1-2 years of tamoxifen. For ER-positive tumours, the annual breast cancer mortality rates are similar during years 0-4 and 5-14, as are the proportional reductions in them by 5 years of tamoxifen, so the cumulative reduction in mortality is more than twice as big at 15 years as at 5 years after diagnosis. These results combine six meta-analyses: anthracycline-based versus no chemotherapy (8000 women); CMF-based versus no chemotherapy (14 000); anthracycline-based versus CMF-based chemotherapy (14 000); about 5 years of tamoxifen versus none (15 000); about 1-2 years of tamoxifen versus none (33 000); and about 5 years versus 1-2 years of tamoxifen (18 000). Finally, allocation to ovarian ablation or suppression (8000 women) also significantly reduces breast cancer mortality, but appears to do so only in the absence of other systemic treatments. For middle-aged women with ER-positive disease (the commonest type of breast cancer), the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the next 15 years would be approximately halved by 6 months of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (with a combination such as FAC or FEC) followed by 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. For, if mortality reductions of 38% (age <50 years) and 20% (age 50-69 years) from such chemotherapy were followed by a further reduction of 31% from tamoxifen in the risks that remain, the final mortality reductions would be 57% and 45%, respectively (and, the trial results could well have been somewhat stronger if there had been full compliance with the allocated treatments). Overall survival would be comparably improved, since these treatments have relatively small effects on mortality from the aggregate of all other causes. Interpretation Some of the widely practicable adjuvant drug treatments that were being tested in the 1980s, which substantially reduced 5-year recurrence rates (but had somewhat less effect on 5-year mortality rates), also substantially reduce 15-year mortality rates. Further improvements in long-term survival could well be available from newer drugs, or better use of older drugs.
  • Plompen, A. J. M., et al. (författare)
  • The joint evaluated fission and fusion nuclear data library, JEFF-3.3
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. - 1434-6001 .- 1434-601X. ; 56:7
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The joint evaluated fission and fusion nuclear data library 3.3 is described. New evaluations for neutron-induced interactions with the major actinides 235U, 238U and 239Pu, on 241Am and 23Na, 59Ni, Cr, Cu, Zr, Cd, Hf, W, Au, Pb and Bi are presented. It includes new fission yields, prompt fission neutron spectra and average number of neutrons per fission. In addition, new data for radioactive decay, thermal neutron scattering, gamma-ray emission, neutron activation, delayed neutrons and displacement damage are presented. JEFF-3.3 was complemented by files from the TENDL project. The libraries for photon, proton, deuteron, triton, helion and alpha-particle induced reactions are from TENDL-2017. The demands for uncertainty quantification in modeling led to many new covariance data for the evaluations. A comparison between results from model calculations using the JEFF-3.3 library and those from benchmark experiments for criticality, delayed neutron yields, shielding and decay heat, reveals that JEFF-3.3 performes very well for a wide range of nuclear technology applications, in particular nuclear energy.
  • Kehoe, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Make EU trade with Brazil sustainable
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 364:6438, s. 341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Ayyer, Kartik, et al. (författare)
  • 3D diffractive imaging of nanoparticle ensembles using an x-ray laser
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Optica. - : OPTICAL SOC AMER. - 2334-2536. ; 8:1, s. 15-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Single particle imaging at x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to determine the structure and dynamics of single biomolecules at room temperature. Two major hurdles have prevented this potential from being reached, namely, the collection of sufficient high-quality diffraction patterns and robust computational purification to overcome structural heterogeneity. We report the breaking of both of these barriers using gold nanoparticle test samples, recording around 10 million diffraction patterns at the European XFEL and structurally and orientationally sorting the patterns to obtain better than 3-nm-resolution 3D reconstructions for each of four samples. With these new developments, integrating advancements in x-ray sources, fast-framing detectors, efficient sample delivery, and data analysis algorithms, we illuminate the path towards sub-nano meter biomolecular imaging. The methods developed here can also be extended to characterize ensembles that are inherently diverse to obtain their full structural landscape. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Fluckiger, Aurelie, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-reactivity between tumor MHC class I-restricted antigens and an enterococcal bacteriophage
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 369:6506, s. 936-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intestinal microbiota have been proposed to induce commensal-specific memory T cells that cross-react with tumor-associated antigens. We identified major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding epitopes in the tail length tape measure protein (TMP) of a prophage found in the genome of the bacteriophage Enterococcus hirae. Mice bearing E. hirae harboring this prophage mounted a TMP-specific H-2K(b)-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocyte response upon immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide or anti-PD-1 antibodies. Administration of bacterial strains engineered to express the TMP epitope improved immunotherapy in mice. In renal and lung cancer patients, the presence of the enterococcal prophage in stools and expression of a TMP-cross-reactive antigen by tumors correlated with long-term benefit of PD-1 blockade therapy. In melanoma patients, T cell clones recognizing naturally processed cancer antigens that are cross-reactive with microbial peptides were detected.
  • Look, M, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analysis of prognostic impact of uPA and PAI-I in breast cancer patients
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Schattauer GmbH. - 0340-6245. ; 90:3, s. 538-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this report we present an extension of the pooled analysis of the prognostic impact of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-I in breast cancer patients. We analyzed a different endpoint, metastasis-free survival (MFS). We checked the consistency of the estimates for uPA and PAI-I for relapse-free survival (RFS) and MFS exploring possible sources of heterogeneity. Nodal status, the most important prognostic factor for breast cancer, introduced heterogeneity in the uPA/PAI-I survival analyses, reflecting the interaction between nodal status and uPA/PAI-I. The estimates for uPA and PAI-I were found to be consistent, even when a different transformation of their values was used. The heterogeneity of the separate data sets decreased if the levels of uPA and PAI-I were ranked, data sets were pooled, and the analyses corrected for the base model that included all traditional prognostic factors, and stratified by data set. We conclude that uPA and PAI-I are ready to be used in the clinic to help classify breast cancer patients into high and low risk groups.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 51
  • [1]23456Nästa

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