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Sökning: WFRF:(Ruchkin Vladislav V.)

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1.
  • Larsen, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Bulimia symptoms in Czech youth : prevalence and association with internalizing problems
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Eating and Weight Disorders. - : SPRINGER. - 1124-4909 .- 1590-1262. ; 25:6, s. 1543-1552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Although clinical studies suggest that bulimia symptoms are common in youth, research on the prevalence of such symptoms and of their association with comorbid internalizing problems in the general population has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the gender-specific prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Czech youth and explored the association between a clinical level of self-reported bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and internalizing problems by gender, controlling for age, socio-economic status and puberty status.Method: The study was conducted on a representative national sample of Czech youth (N = 4430, 57.0% female) using self-report scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine the associations.Results: The 3-month CLBS prevalence was higher in girls (11.4%) than in boys (3.8%) and in both genders a CLBS was associated with higher levels of comorbid internalizing problems.Discussion: Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.
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2.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet MAO-B, personality, and psychopathology
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. - 0021-843X .- 1939-1846. ; 114:3, s. 477-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article investigates the relationships between platelet monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) activity, personality, and psychopathology (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994] diagnoses. These relationships were assessed in 178 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. Even after controlling for smoking, the authors found that both Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology were negatively related to MAO-B activity. In the final reduced model, novelty seeking fully mediated the relationships between MAO-B and Externalizing Psychopathology but not between MAO-B and Internalizing Psychopathology. It was hypothesized that low platelet MAO-B activity does not directly predispose individuals to psychopathology but is related to specific personality traits, which in turn represent a vulnerability factor for psychopathology. Future studies should help clarify the nature of the relationships between personality, biological markers, and psychopathology.
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3.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial process screening device : Validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:5, s. 438-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age = 16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.
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4.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents : What are the associated factors?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n = 175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.
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5.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors Associated with Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence among American Inner-City Youth : A Longitudinal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Substance Use & Misuse. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 1082-6084 .- 1532-2491. ; 55:3, s. 358-366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Early alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for later alcohol dependence, as well as social and mental health problems. In this study, we investigate the risk factors (internalizing and externalizing behaviors) associated with early alcohol consumption over a period of 1 year, and examine whether the association is sex-specific. Methods: U.S. inner-city adolescents (N = 1785, Mean age = 12.11) were assessed and reassessed in the sixth and seventh grades (Mean age = 13.10). Self-reported information was obtained on the lifetime level of alcohol consumption, internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress [PTS]), and externalizing behaviors (sensation seeking, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers). Associations between the variables were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: In an adjusted SEM analysis drinking by the sixth grade was primarily associated with externalizing behaviors, whereas PTS was linked to lower levels of alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption and greater externalizing behaviors by the sixth grade predicted higher alcohol consumption by the seventh grade, whereas anxiety and African American ethnicity were associated with less alcohol consumption. No sex differences were found in the association between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and drinking. However, in the adjusted SEM analysis female sex predicted higher lifetime consumption by the seventh grade. Conclusion: Sensation seeking behavior, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers should be regarded as risk factors and taken into consideration when planning prevention efforts in order to decrease alcohol use in early adolescence.
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6.
  • Koposov, R., et al. (författare)
  • Inhalant use in adolescents in northern Russia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 53:7, s. 709-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To determine the prevalence of inhalant use in Russian adolescents and to investigate associated psychosocial problems from a gender perspective. Methods: Data on inhalant use and comorbid psychopathology were collected by means of self-reports from 2892 (42.4% boys) sixth to tenth grade students in public schools in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in boys and girls, who were non-users and users of inhalants. Results: The prevalence of inhalant use was 6.1% among boys and 3.4% among girls. Compared with non-users, inhalant users scored significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing problems, functional impairment and lower on academic motivation, with psychopathology increasing with age. While there were no gender differences for internalizing problems, increased levels of externalizing problems in inhalant users were gender-specific (significantly higher in boys). Conclusions: Inhalant use is related to significantly higher levels of comorbid psychopathology in Russian adolescents. Comprehensive, evidence-based prevention and intervention policies are needed to address inhalant use and its harmful effects.
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7.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine-related receptors, substance dependence, behavioral problems and personality among juvenile delinquents
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0191-8869 .- 1873-3549. ; 169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was two-fold: to examine possible associations between dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms and (1) substance dependence; and (2) self-reported psychiatric disturbances, behavioral problems, and personality. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: s) in COMT, DAT and DRD4 was conducted in 174 Russian male juvenile inmates (14–18 years of age) subdivided into having a diagnosis of substance dependence or not, as assessed by using K-SADS-PL. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing psychiatric symptoms (CPTS-RI, BDI), behavioral problems (YSR), and personality traits (TCI). Results revealed that juveniles meeting the criteria for substance dependence differed significantly from their counterparts in four polymorphisms, namely COMT rs737865, DAT rs6347, DRD4 C_1611535 and DRD4 exon III; and exact binary regression analysis indicated a highly significant association between the DRD4 C_1611535 GG genotype and substance dependence. One-way ANOVA tests further showed this gene polymorphism variant to be significantly associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, thought problems, aggressive behavior, and personality traits indicating antisocial personality disturbances, as compared with the other gene polymorphism variants. In conclusion, the results underscore the role of the DRD4 polymorphism C_1611535 GG genotype for substance dependence, and suggest its associations with different self-reported phenotype characteristics.
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8.
  • Ruchkin, V., et al. (författare)
  • Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents : The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development. - : Springer. - 0009-398X .- 1573-3327. ; 48:5, s. 691-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.
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9.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents : the role of community violence exposure
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 54:6, s. 683-691
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.
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10.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future expectations in Russian adolescents
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders. - : SPRINGER WIEN. - 1866-6116 .- 1866-6647. ; 11:3, s. 279-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of future expectations-the extent to which a future outcome is deemed likely-in the health and well-being of adolescents, with research linking future expectations to outcomes such as an increased likelihood of engaging in risky health behaviors. As yet, however, there has been no research on future expectations and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status and future expectations in a school-based sample of adolescents. Data were analyzed from 537 Russian adolescents (aged 12-17) with teacher-reported ADHD symptoms and self-reported future expectations. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. In fully adjusted analyses, inattention symptoms/possible ADHD inattentive status was associated with lower future educational expectations, while a possible ADHD hyperactivity status was associated with increased odds for negative future expectations relating to work, family and succeeding in what is most important. The findings of this study suggest that greater ADHD symptoms/possible ADHD status in adolescence may be linked to an increased risk for negative future expectations across a variety of different life domains.
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