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Sökning: WFRF:(Rutter Michael L)

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1.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 19:20, s. 4072-4082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
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2.
  • Pinto, Dalila, et al. (författare)
  • Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 466:7304, s. 368-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.
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3.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 21:21, s. 4781-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the contribution of common variation to ASD risk is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating association of individual SNPs, we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest p-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. By contrast, allele-scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case-status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele-score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect ASD risk but their individual effects are modest.
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4.
  • Casey, Jillian P, et al. (författare)
  • A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717. ; 131:4, s. 565-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neuropsychiatric genetics, overall, the high heritability of ASD (~90%) remains poorly explained by common genetic risk variants. However, recent studies suggest that rare genomic variation, in particular copy number variation, may account for a significant proportion of the genetic basis of ASD. We present a large scale analysis to identify candidate genes which may contain low-frequency recessive variation contributing to ASD while taking into account the potential contribution of population differences to the genetic heterogeneity of ASD. Our strategy, homozygous haplotype (HH) mapping, aims to detect homozygous segments of identical haplotype structure that are shared at a higher frequency amongst ASD patients compared to parental controls. The analysis was performed on 1,402 Autism Genome Project trios genotyped for 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified 25 known and 1,218 novel ASD candidate genes in the discovery analysis including CADM2, ABHD14A, CHRFAM7A, GRIK2, GRM3, EPHA3, FGF10, KCND2, PDZK1, IMMP2L and FOXP2. Furthermore, 10 of the previously reported ASD genes and 300 of the novel candidates identified in the discovery analysis were replicated in an independent sample of 1,182 trios. Our results demonstrate that regions of HH are significantly enriched for previously reported ASD candidate genes and the observed association is independent of gene size (odds ratio 2.10). Our findings highlight the applicability of HH mapping in complex disorders such as ASD and offer an alternative approach to the analysis of genome-wide association data.
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5.
  • Szatmari, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:3, s. 319-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASDs is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASDs by using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays and 1,168 families with at least two affected individuals, performing the largest linkage scan to date while also analyzing copy number variation in these families. Linkage and copy number variation analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, among other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for contributing to ASDs.
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6.
  • Su, Zhan, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett's esophagus.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett's esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in the discovery stage and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication stage. Variants at two loci were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10(-9); odds ratio (OR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-1.28), within the major histocompatibility complex locus, and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10(-10); OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.10-1.19), for which the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that many common variants of small effect contribute to genetic susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett's esophagus.
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7.
  • Nelson, Christopher P, et al. (författare)
  • Association analyses based on false discovery rate implicate new loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:9, s. 1385-1391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) had identified 66 loci at 'genome-wide significance' (P < 5 × 10 '8) at the time of this analysis, but a much larger number of putative loci at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% (refs. 1,2,3,4). Here we leverage an interim release of UK Biobank (UKBB) data to evaluate the validity of the FDR approach. We tested a CAD phenotype inclusive of angina (SOFT; n cases = 10,801) as well as a stricter definition without angina (HARD; n cases = 6,482) and selected cases with the former phenotype to conduct a meta-analysis using the two most recent CAD GWAS. This approach identified 13 new loci at genome-wide significance, 12 of which were on our previous list of loci meeting the 5% FDR threshold, thus providing strong support that the remaining loci identified by FDR represent genuine signals. The 304 independent variants associated at 5% FDR in this study explain 21.2% of CAD heritability and identify 243 loci that implicate pathways in blood vessel morphogenesis as well as lipid metabolism, nitric oxide signaling and inflammation.
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8.
  • Antonio, Leen, et al. (författare)
  • Associations Between Sex Steroids and the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study in European Men
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 100:4, s. 1396-1404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Low testosterone (T) has been associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetS), but it remains unclear if this association is independent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Estradiol (E2) may also be associated with MetS, but few studies have investigated this. Objective: To study the association between baseline sex steroids and the development of incident MetS and to investigate the influence of SHBG, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance on this risk. Methods: Three thousand three hundred sixty nine community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years were recruited for participation in EMAS. MetS was defined by the updated NCEP ATP III criteria. Testosterone and E2 levels were measured by liquid and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between sex steroids and incident MetS. Results: One thousand six hundred fifty one men without MetS at baseline were identified. During follow-up, 289 men developed incident MetS, while 1362 men did not develop MetS. Men with lower baseline total T levels were at higher risk for developing MetS [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, P < .001), even after adjustment for SHBG (OR = 1.43, P < .001), BMI (OR = 1.44, P < .001) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OR = 1.64, P < .001). E2 was not associated with development of MetS (OR = 1.04; P = .56). However, a lower E2/T ratio was associated with a lower risk of incident MetS (OR = 0.38; P < .001), even after adjustment for SHBG (OR = 0.48; P < .001), BMI (OR = 0.60; P = .001) or HOMA-IR (OR = 0.41; P < .001). Conclusions: Inmen, lower Tlevels, but not E2, are linked with an increased risk of developing MetS, independent of SHBG, BMI or insulin resistance. A lower E2/T ratio may be protective against developing MetS.
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9.
  • Ahern, Tomás, et al. (författare)
  • Natural history, risk factors and clinical features of primary hypogonadism in ageing men : Longitudinal Data from the European Male Ageing Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-0664. ; 85:6, s. 891-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T < 10·5 nmol/l and LH>9·4U/l) in ageing men. Design, Patients and Measurements: A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4·3 years. Men were classified as incident (i) PHG (eugonadal [EUG, T ≥ 10·5 nmol/l] at baseline, PHG at follow-up), persistent (p) PHG (PHG at baseline and follow-up), pEUG (EUG at baseline and follow-up) and reversed (r) PHG (PHG at baseline, EUG at follow-up). Predictors and changes in clinical features associated with the development of PHG were analysed by regression models. Results: Of 1,991 men comprising the analytical sample, 97·5% had pEUG, 1·1% iPHG, 1·1% pPHG and 0·3% rPHG. The incidence of PHG was 0·2%/year. Higher age (>70 years) [OR 12·48 (1·27-122·13), P = 0·030] and chronic illnesses [OR 4·24 (1·08-16·56); P = 0·038] predicted iPHG. Upon transition from EUG to PHG, erectile function, physical vigour and haemoglobin worsened significantly. Men with pPHG had decreased morning erections, sexual thoughts and haemoglobin with increased insulin resistance. Conclusions: Primary testicular failure in men is uncommon and predicted by old age and chronic illness. Some clinical features attributable to androgen deficiency, but not others, accompanied the T decline in men who developed biochemical PHG. Whether androgen replacement can improve sexual and/or physical function in elderly men with PHG merits further study.
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10.
  • Peacock, Christopher S, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 39:7, s. 839-847
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Here we report the sequencing of the genomes of two species of Leishmania: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The comparison of these sequences with the published genome of Leishmania major reveals marked conservation of synteny and identifies only 200 genes with a differential distribution between the three species. L. braziliensis, contrary to Leishmania species examined so far, possesses components of a putative RNA-mediated interference pathway, telomere-associated transposable elements and spliced leader–associated SLACS retrotransposons. We show that pseudogene formation and gene loss are the principal forces shaping the different genomes. Genes that are differentially distributed between the species encode proteins implicated in host-pathogen interactions and parasite survival in the macrophage.
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