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Sökning: WFRF:(Saag Lauri)

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1.
  • Divakar, Pradeep K., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137. ; 208:4, s. 1217-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.
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2.
  • Mark, Kristiina, et al. (författare)
  • Testing morphology-based delimitation of Vulpicida juniperinus and V. tubulosus (Parmeliaceae) using three molecular markers.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lichenologist. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0024-2829. ; 44:6, s. 757-772
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The delimitation of two morphologically similar and not easily separable Vulpicida species,V. juniperinus and V. tubulosus, is analyzed using nuclear ITS and Mcm7, and mitochondrial SSU DNA sequences. Seventy-nine Vulpicida specimens, most from the two focal taxa, are included in the three-locus gene tree. The results from Bayesian and parsimony analyses are presented. There are strong conflicts between the single locus gene trees. Vulpicida juniperinus and V. tubulosus are divided into two clearly distinguished groups in the ITS and concatenated B/MCMC tree. However, these species are mixed in both clades, appearing polyphyletic. Currently accepted V. juniperinus and V. tubulosus are not distinct according to the loci studied. Vulpicida pinastri appears monophyletic based on the available sequences.
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3.
  • Saag, Andres, et al. (författare)
  • Third world list of cetrarioid lichens: A databased tool for documentation of nomenclatural data - lessons learned
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Taxon. - : International Association for Plant Taxonomy. - 0040-0262. ; 62:3, s. 591-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The third version of the world list of cetrarioid lichens contains 572 names representing 149 accepted species. It is presented in a new, electronical form, based on a FileMaker-powered database, allowing users to view data in different sets and to perform searches. Type information is added for most of the names, and new information regarding the phylogenetic status of accepted taxa is introduced. Five global taxonomic databases (Catalogue of Life, Encyclopedia of Life, Index Fungorum, LIAS, MycoBank) are compared by scanning the availability of mainly nomenclatural data of 30 selected cetrarioid names (10 accepted names, 10 homotypic and 10 heterotypic synonyms); the significance of digital web resources is discussed.
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4.
  • Saag, Lehti, et al. (författare)
  • The Arrival of Siberian Ancestry Connecting the Eastern Baltic to Uralic Speakers further East
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - 0960-9822 .- 1879-0445. ; 29:10, s. 1701-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we compare the genetic ancestry of individuals from two as yet genetically unstudied cultural traditions in Estonia in the context of available modern and ancient datasets: 15 from the Late Bronze Age stone-cist graves (1200-400 BC) (EstBA) and 6 from the Pre-Roman Iron Age tarand cemeteries (800/500 BC-50 AD) (EstIA). We also included 5 Pre-Roman to Roman Iron Age Ingrian (500 BC450 AD) (IngIA) and 7 Middle Age Estonian (1200-1600 AD) (EstMA) individuals to build a dataset for studying the demographic history of the northern parts of the Eastern Baltic from the earliest layer of Mesolithic to modern times. Our findings are consistent with EstBA receiving gene flow from regions with strong Western hunter-gatherer (WHG) affinities and EstIA from populations related to modern Siberians. The latter inference is in accordance with Y chromosome (chrY) distributions in present day populations of the Eastern Baltic, as well as patterns of autosomal variation in the majority of the westernmost Uralic speakers [1-5]. This ancestry reached the coasts of the Baltic Sea no later than the mid-first millennium BC; i.e., in the same time window as the diversification of west Uralic (Finnic) languages [6]. Furthermore, phenotypic traits often associated with modern Northern Europeans, like light eyes, hair, and skin, as well as lactose tolerance, can be traced back to the Bronze Age in the Eastern Baltic.
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5.
  • Ilumae, Anne-Mai, et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenetic history of patrilineages rare in northern and eastern Europe from large-scale re-sequencing of human Y-chromosomes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : SPRINGERNATURE. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 29:10, s. 1510-1519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most frequent Y-chromosomal (chrY) haplogroups in northern and eastern Europe (NEE) are well-known and thoroughly characterised. Yet a considerable number of men in every population carry rare paternal lineages with estimated frequencies around 5%. So far, limited sample-sizes and insufficient resolution of genotyping have obstructed a truly comprehensive look into the variety of rare paternal lineages segregating within populations and potential signals of population history that such lineages might convey. Here we harness the power of massive re-sequencing of human Y chromosomes to identify previously unknown population-specific clusters among rare paternal lineages in NEE. We construct dated phylogenies for haplogroups E2-M215, J2-M172, G-M201 and Q-M242 on the basis of 421 (of them 282 novel) high-coverage chrY sequences collected from large-scale databases focusing on populations of NEE. Within these otherwise rare haplogroups we disclose lineages that began to radiate similar to 1-3 thousand years ago in Estonia and Sweden and reveal male phylogenetic patterns testifying of comparatively recent local demographic expansions. Conversely, haplogroup Q lineages bear evidence of ancient Siberian influence lingering in the modern paternal gene pool of northern Europe. We assess the possible direction of influx of ancestral carriers for some of these male lineages. In addition, we demonstrate the congruency of paternal haplogroup composition of our dataset with two independent population-based cohorts from Estonia and Sweden.
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6.
  • Karmin, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 25:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50-100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192-307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47-52 kya, consistent with a rapid initial colonization model of Eurasia and Oceania after the out-of-Africa bottleneck. In contrast to demographic reconstructions based on mtDNA, we infer a second strong bottleneck in Y-chromosome lineages dating to the last 10 ky. We hypothesize that this bottleneck is caused by cultural changes affecting variance of reproductive success among males.
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7.
  • Karmin, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Episodes of Diversification and Isolation in Island Southeast Asian and Near Oceanian Male Lineages
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 39:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) and Oceania host one of the world's richest assemblages of human phenotypic, linguistic, and cultural diversity. Despite this, the region's male genetic lineages are globally among the last to remain unresolved. We compiled similar to 9.7 Mb of Y chromosome (chrY) sequence from a diverse sample of over 380 men from this region, including 152 first reported here. The granularity of this data set allows us to fully resolve and date the regional chrY phylogeny. This new high-resolution tree confirms two main population bursts: multiple rapid diversifications following the region's initial settlement similar to 50 kya, and extensive expansions <6 kya. Notably, similar to 40-25 kya the deep rooting local lineages of C-M130, M-P256, and S-B254 show almost no further branching events in ISEA, New Guinea, and Australia, matching a similar pause in diversification seen in maternal mitochondrial DNA lineages. The main local lineages start diversifying similar to 25 kya, at the time of the last glacial maximum. This improved chrY topology highlights localized events with important historical implications, including pre-Holocene contact between Mainland and ISEA, potential interactions between Australia and the Papuan world, and a sustained period of diversification following the flooding of the ancient Sunda and Sahul continents as the insular landscape observed today formed. The high-resolution phylogeny of the chrY presented here thus enables a detailed exploration of past isolation, interaction, and change in one of the world's least understood regions.
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8.
  • Kõljalg, Urmas, et al. (författare)
  • Towards a unified paradigm for sequence-based identification of fungi.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Molecular ecology. - 1365-294X. ; 22:21, s. 5271-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is the formal fungal barcode and in most cases the marker of choice for the exploration of fungal diversity in environmental samples. Two problems are particularly acute in the pursuit of satisfactory taxonomic assignment of newly generated ITS sequences: (i) the lack of an inclusive, reliable public reference data set and (ii) the lack of means to refer to fungal species, for which no Latin name is available in a standardized stable way. Here, we report on progress in these regards through further development of the UNITE database (http://unite.ut.ee) for molecular identification of fungi. All fungal species represented by at least two ITS sequences in the international nucleotide sequence databases are now given a unique, stable name of the accession number type (e.g. Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus|GU586904|SH133781.05FU), and their taxonomic and ecological annotations were corrected as far as possible through a distributed, third-party annotation effort. We introduce the term 'species hypothesis' (SH) for the taxa discovered in clustering on different similarity thresholds (97-99%). An automatically or manually designated sequence is chosen to represent each such SH. These reference sequences are released (http://unite.ut.ee/repository.php) for use by the scientific community in, for example, local sequence similarity searches and in the QIIME pipeline. The system and the data will be updated automatically as the number of public fungal ITS sequences grows. We invite everybody in the position to improve the annotation or metadata associated with their particular fungal lineages of expertise to do so through the new Web-based sequence management system in UNITE.
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9.
  • Rasmussen, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 506:7487, s. 225-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 C-14 years before present (BP) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years BP)(1,2). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology(3). However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans(2). An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum(4). Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 +/- 35 C-14 years BP (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years BP) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4x and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population(5) into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years BP. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
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