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Sökning: WFRF:(Salami Alireza)

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  • Månsson, K. N. T., et al. (författare)
  • Neuroplasticity in response to cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with anxiety disorders exhibit excessive neural reactivity in the amygdala, which can be normalized by effective treatment like cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Mechanisms underlying the brain’s adaptation to anxiolytic treatments are likely related both to structural plasticity and functional response alterations, but multimodal neuroimaging studies addressing structure–function interactions are currently missing. Here, we examined treatment-related changes in brain structure (gray matter (GM) volume) and function (blood–oxygen level dependent, BOLD response to self-referential criticism) in 26 participants with social anxiety disorder randomly assigned either to CBT or an attention bias modification control treatment. Also, 26 matched healthy controls were included. Significant time × treatment interactions were found in the amygdala with decreases both in GM volume (family-wise error (FWE) corrected PFWE=0.02) and BOLD responsivity (PFWE=0.01) after successful CBT. Before treatment, amygdala GM volume correlated positively with anticipatory speech anxiety (PFWE=0.04), and CBT-induced reduction of amygdala GM volume (pre–post) correlated positively with reduced anticipatory anxiety after treatment (PFWE0.05). In addition, we observed greater amygdala neural responsivity to self-referential criticism in socially anxious participants, as compared with controls (PFWE=0.029), before but not after CBT. Further analysis indicated that diminished amygdala GM volume mediated the relationship between decreased neural responsivity and reduced social anxiety after treatment (P=0.007). Thus, our results suggest that improvement-related structural plasticity impacts neural responsiveness within the amygdala, which could be essential for achieving anxiety reduction with CBT.
  • Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara, et al. (författare)
  • Age-Related Differences in Dynamic Interactions Among Default Mode, Frontoparietal Control, and Dorsal Attention Networks during Resting-State and Interference Resolution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) can identify large-scale brain networks, including the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal control (FPN) and dorsal attention (DAN) networks. Interactions among these networks are critical for supporting complex cognitive functions, yet the way in which they are modulated across states is not well understood. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these interactions are similarly affected in aging regardless of cognitive state. In this study, we investigated age-related differences in functional interactions among the DMN, FPN and DAN during rest and the Multi-Source Interference task (MSIT). Networks were identified using independent component analysis (ICA), and functional connectivity was measured during rest and task. We found that the FPN was more coupled with the DMN during rest and with the DAN during the MSIT. The degree of FPN-DMN connectivity was lower in older compared to younger adults, whereas no age-related differences were observed in FPN-DAN connectivity in either state. This suggests that dynamic interactions of the FPN are stable across cognitive states. The DMN and DAN were anti correlated and age-sensitive during the MSIT only, indicating variation in a task-dependent manner. Increased levels of anticorrelation from rest to task also predicted successful interference resolution. Additional analyses revealed that the degree of DMN-DAN anticorrelation during the MSIT was associated to resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) within the DMN. This suggests that reduced DMN neural activity during rest underlies an impaired ability to achieve higher levels of anticorrelation during a task. Taken together, our results suggest that only parts of age-related differences in connectivity are uncovered at rest and thus, should be studied in the functional connectome across multiple states for a more comprehensive picture.
  • Avelar-Pereira, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Increased functional homotopy of the prefrontal cortex is associated with corpus callosum degeneration and working memory decline
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 96, s. 68-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional homotopy reflects the link between spontaneous activity in a voxel and its counterpart in the opposite hemisphere. Alterations in homotopic functional connectivity (FC) are seen in normal aging, with highest and lowest homotopy being present in sensory-motor and higher-order regions, respectively. Homotopic FC relates to underlying structural connections, but its neurobiological underpinnings remain unclear. The genu of the corpus callosum joins symmetrical parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and is susceptible to age-related degeneration, suggesting that PFC homotopic connectivity is linked to changes in white-matter integrity. We investigated homotopic connectivity changes and whether these were associated with white-matter integrity in 338 individuals. In addition, we examined whether PFC homotopic FC was related to changes in the genu over 10 years and working memory over 5 years. There were increases and decreases in functional homotopy, with the former being prevalent in subcortical and frontal regions. Increased PFC homotopic FC was partially driven by structural degeneration and negatively associated with working memory, suggesting that it reflects detrimental age-related changes. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Becker, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Structure-function associations of successful associative encoding
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated a critical role of hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in associative memory. Similarly, evidence from structural MRI studies suggests a relationship between gray-matter volume in these regions and associative memory. However, how brain volume and activity relate to each other during associative-memory formation remains unclear. Here, we used joint independent component analysis (jICA) to examine how gray-matter volume and brain activity would be associated during associative encoding, especially in medial-temporal lobe (MTL) and IFG. T1-weighted images were collected from 27 young adults, and functional MRI was employed during intentional encoding of object pairs. A subsequent recognition task tested participants' memory performance. Unimodal analyses using voxel-based morphometry revealed that participants with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volume in left anterior hippocampus. Results from the jICA revealed one component that comprised a covariance pattern between gray-matter volume in anterior and posterior MTL and encoding-related activity in IFG. Our findings suggest that gray matter within the MTL modulates distally distinct parts of the associative encoding circuit, and extend previous studies that demonstrated MTL-IFG functional connectivity during associative memory tasks.
  • Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity over a decade modifies age-related decline in perfusion, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity of the posterior default mode network : a multimodal approach
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 131, s. 133-141
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One step toward healthy brain aging may be to entertain a physically active lifestyle. Studies investigating physical activity effects on brain integrity have, however, mainly been based on single brain markers, and few used a multimodal imaging approach. In the present study, we used cohort data from the Betula study to examine the relationships between scores reflecting current and accumulated physical activity and brain health. More specifically, we first examined if physical activity scores modulated negative effects of age on seven resting state networks previously identified by Salami, Pudas, and Nyberg (2014). The results revealed that one of the most age-sensitive RSN was positively altered by physical activity, namely, the posterior default-mode network involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Second, within this physical activity-sensitive RSN, we further analyzed the association between physical activity and gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter integrity, and cerebral perfusion using linear regression models. Regions within the identified DMN displayed larger GM volumes and stronger perfusion in relation to both current and 10-years accumulated scores of physical activity. No associations of physical activity and white matter integrity were observed. Collectively, our findings demonstrate strengthened PCC–cortical connectivity within the DMN, larger PCC GM volume, and higher PCC perfusion as a function of physical activity. In turn, these findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of how long-term regular exercise can contribute to healthy brain aging.
  • Giddaluru, Sudheer, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of structural connectivity and information processing in the brain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain Structure and Function. - 1863-2653 .- 1863-2661. ; 221:9, s. 4643-4661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 Norwegian healthy adults were integrated by meta-analysis to enhance power. Complementary GWASs on behavioral data reflecting processing speed, which is related to microstructural properties of WM pathways, were performed and integrated with WM FA results via multimodal analysis to identify shared genetic associations. One locus on chromosome 17 (rs145994492) showed genome-wide significant association with WM FA (meta P value = 1.87 × 10(-08)). Suggestive associations (Meta P value <1 × 10(-06)) were observed for 12 loci, including one containing ZFPM2 (lowest meta P value = 7.44 × 10(-08)). This locus was also implicated in multimodal analysis of WM FA and processing speed (lowest Fisher P value = 8.56 × 10(-07)). ZFPM2 is relevant in specification of corticothalamic neurons during brain development. Analysis of SNPs associated with processing speed revealed association with a locus that included SSPO (lowest meta P value = 4.37 × 10(-08)), which has been linked to commissural axon growth. An intergenic SNP (rs183854424) 14 kb downstream of CSMD1, which is implicated in schizophrenia, showed suggestive evidence of association in the WM FA meta-analysis (meta P value = 1.43 × 10(-07)) and the multimodal analysis (Fisher P value = 1 × 10(-07)). These findings provide novel data on the genetics of WM pathways and processing speed, and highlight a role of ZFPM2 and CSMD1 in information processing in the brain.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • A Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Model Approach for Analysis of Resting-State Functional Brain Connectivity : An Alternative to Thresholding
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain Connectivity. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 2158-0014 .- 2158-0022. ; 10:5, s. 202-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article proposes a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to analyze functional brain connectivity where mixture components represent "positively connected" and "non-connected" brain regions. Such an approach provides a data-informed separation of reliable and spurious connections in contrast to arbitrary thresholding of a connectivity matrix. The hierarchical structure of the model allows simultaneous inferences for the entire population as well as for each individual subject. A new connectivity measure, the posterior probability of a given pair of brain regions of a specific subject to be connected given the observed correlation of regions' activity, can be computed from the model fit. The posterior probability reflects the connectivity of a pair of regions relative to the overall connectivity pattern of an individual, which is overlooked in traditional correlation analyses. This article demonstrates that using the posterior probability might diminish the effect of spurious connections on inferences, which is present when a correlation is used as a connectivity measure. In addition, simulation analyses reveal that the sparsification of the connectivity matrix using the posterior probabilities might outperform the absolute thresholding based on correlations. Therefore, we suggest that posterior probability might be a beneficial measure of connectivity compared with the correlation. The applicability of the introduced method is exemplified by a study of functional resting-state brain connectivity in older adults.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 51, s. 167-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 
  • Guitart-Masip, Marc, et al. (författare)
  • BOLD Variability is Related to Dopaminergic Neurotransmission and Cognitive Aging
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 26:5, s. 2074-2083
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine (DA) losses are associated with various aging-related cognitive deficits. Typically, higher moment-to-moment brain signal variability in large-scale patterns of voxels in neocortical regions is linked to better cognitive performance and younger adult age, yet the physiological mechanisms regulating brain signal variability are unknown. We explored the relationship among adult age, DA availability, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability, while younger and older participants performed a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We quantified striatal and extrastriatal DA D1 receptor density with [C-11]SCH23390 and positron emission tomography in all participants. We found that BOLD variability in a neocortical region was negatively related to age and positively related to SWM performance. In contrast, BOLD variability in subcortical regions and bilateral hippocampus was positively related to age and slower responses, and negatively related to D1 density in caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, BOLD variability in neocortical regions was positively associated with task-related disengagement of the default-mode network, a network whose activation needs to be suppressed for efficient SWM processing. Our results show that age-related DA losses contribute to changes in brain signal variability in subcortical regions and suggest a potential mechanism, by which neocortical BOLD variability supports cognitive performance.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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