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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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5.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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6.
  • Carraminana, Albert, et al. (författare)
  • Rationale and Study Design for an Individualized Perioperative Open Lung Ventilatory Strategy in Patients on One-Lung Ventilation (iPROVE-OLV)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 1053-0770 .- 1532-8422. ; 33:9, s. 2492-2502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this clinical trial is to examine whether it is possible to reduce postoperative complications using an individualized perioperative ventilatory strategy versus using a standard lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients scheduled for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation. Design: International, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: A network of university hospitals. Participants: The study comprises 1,380 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. Interventions: The individualized group will receive intraoperative recruitment maneuvers followed by individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (open lung approach) during the intraoperative period plus postoperative ventilatory support with high-flow nasal cannula, whereas the control group will be managed with conventional lung-protective ventilation. Measurements and Main Results: Individual and total number of postoperative complications, including atelectasis, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pneumonia, acute lung injury; unplanned readmission and reintubation; length of stay and death in the critical care unit and in the hospital will be analyzed for both groups. The authors hypothesize that the intraoperative application of an open lung approach followed by an individual indication of high-flow nasal cannula in the postoperative period will reduce pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • Bernal, Ximena E., et al. (författare)
  • Empowering Latina scientists
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 363:6429, s. 825-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
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10.
  • Grote, Verena A, et al. (författare)
  • The Associations of Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Soluble Receptor with Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study within the Prospective EPIC Cohort.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 21:4, s. 619-628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors (RAGE) have been implicated in cancer development through their proinflammatory capabilities. However, prospective data on their association with cancer of specific sites, including pancreatic cancer, are limited.METHODS: Prediagnostic blood levels of the AGE product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and the endogenous secreted receptor for AGE (esRAGE) were measured using ELISA in 454 patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer and individually matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Pancreatic cancer risk was estimated by calculating ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: Elevated CML levels tended to be associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk [OR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.32-1.01) comparing highest with lowest quintile), whereas no association was observed for esRAGE (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.62-1.54). Adjustments for body mass index and smoking attenuated the inverse associations of CML with pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.41-1.49). There was an inverse association between esRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer for cases that were diagnosed within the first 2 years of follow-up [OR = 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22-0.96) for a doubling in concentration], whereas there was no association among those with a longer follow-up (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88-1.39; P(interaction) = 0.002).Conclusions and Impact: Our results do not provide evidence for an association of higher CML or lower esRAGE levels with risk of pancreatic cancer. The role of AGE/RAGE in pancreatic cancer would benefit from further investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; ©2012 AACR.
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