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Sökning: WFRF:(Sans Susana)

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1.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Kornitzer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Job stress and major coronary events: results from the Job Stress, Absenteeism and Coronary Heart Disease in Europe study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1741-8267. ; 13:5, s. 695-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: The intention of this study is to investigate the relationship of the demands/control/strain model with hard coronary events in an epidemiological, prospective, multicenter, European study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six cohorts (Brussels, Ghent, Lille, Barcelona, Goteborg and Malmo) from four European countries (Belgium, France, Spain and Sweden) consisting of 21 111 middle-aged male subjects participated between 1993 and 1996 in the baseline survey of the Job Stress, Absenteeism and Coronary Heart Disease in Europe (JACE) study. The Karasek strain model of psychological demands (five items)/control (nine items) was used. During a mean follow-up of 40 months 185 acute coronary events or coronary deaths were observed. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for developing an acute coronary event were 1.46 [CI 95% confidence interval (1.08-1.97)] for high against low psychological demands and 1.53 (95% CI 1.0-2.35) for strained (high demands plus low control) against relaxed (low demands plus high control) groups. After adjustment for standard cardiovascular risk factors the HR for developing a coronary event for those above or equal to the median against those below the median of psychological demands was 1.46 (95% CI 1.08-1.97) whereas the HR for strained against relaxed groups is 1.46 (95% CI 0.96-2.25). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSION: In this European, multicenter, prospective, epidemiological study the Karasek job strain model was an independent predictor of acute coronary events, with the psychological demands scale emerging as the important component.
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  • Müezzinler, Aysel, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the CHANCES Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. - 0749-3797 .- 1873-2607. ; 49:5, s. e53-e63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years.METHODS: Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014.RESULTS: A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority.
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  • Antikainen, Riitta L., et al. (författare)
  • Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension: the WHO MONICA Project
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovasclar Prevention & Rehabilitation. - 1741-8267. ; 13:1, s. 13-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To describe the secular changes in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys using standardized methods conducted between the early 1980s and mid-1990s. SETTING: Twenty-four geographically defined populations of the WHO MONICA Project. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected men and women aged 35-64 years. The total number of participants was 69 907. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two definitions of hypertension were used: 160/95 mmHg or above and 140/90 mmHg or above for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Subjects on antihypertensive drug treatment were considered to be hypertensive regardless of their blood pressure. Treated subjects whose measured blood pressure level was less than 160/95 or 140/90 mmHg according to the two definitions, respectively, were considered to be adequately treated. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension decreased in most and increased in only a few populations. For both definitions of hypertension, the proportion of hypertensive subjects who were aware of their condition increased in three-quarters of the male populations and in two-thirds of the female populations. Furthermore, the proportion of hypertensive individuals on antihypertensive drug treatment increased in three-quarters of the populations. In the final survey, hypertension tended to be better treated and controlled in women than in men. Nevertheless, a large proportion of patients receiving antihypertensive drug therapy still had inadequately controlled blood pressure levels. CONCLUSION: Although awareness and treatment of hypertension according to the data obtained during the late 1980s to the mid-1990s increased in several populations, the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment showed the continuing need for improvements.
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  • Brunner, Fabian J., et al. (författare)
  • Application of non-HDL cholesterol for population-based cardiovascular risk stratification : results from the Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 394:10215, s. 2173-2183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. Methods In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. Findings Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48.7%] women; median age 51.0 years [IQR 40.7-59.7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48.4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49.1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43.6 years (median 13.5 years, IQR 7.0-20.1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease eventrates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7.7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L to 33.7% for >= 5.7 mmol/L in women and from 12.8% to 43.6% in men; p<0.0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2.6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for nonHDL cholesterol 2.6 to <3.7 mmol/L to 1.9, 1.6-2.2 for >= 5.7 mmol/L in women and from 1.1, 1.0-1.3 to 2.3, 2.0-2.5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. Interpretation Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies.
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