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Sökning: WFRF:(Sarkisyan Daniil)

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  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Bazov, Igor, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Neuronal Expression of Opioid Gene is Controlled by Dual Epigenetic and Transcriptional Mechanism in Human Brain
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 28:9, s. 3129-3142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular mechanisms that define patterns of neuropeptide expression are essential for the formation and rewiring of neural circuits. The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin opioid peptides mediating depression and substance dependence. We here demonstrated that PDYN is expressed in neurons in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and identified neuronal differentially methylated region in PDYN locus framed by CCCTC-binding factor binding sites. A short, nucleosome size human-specific promoter CpG island (CGI), a core of this region may serve as a regulatory module, which is hypomethylated in neurons, enriched in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and targeted by USF2, a methylation-sensitive E-box transcription factor (TF). USF2 activates PDYN transcription in model systems, and binds to nonmethylated CGI in dlPFC. USF2 and PDYN expression is correlated, and USF2 and PDYN proteins are co-localized in dlPFC. Segregation of activatory TF and repressive CGI methylation may ensure contrasting PDYN expression in neurons and glia in human brain.
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2.
  • Jia, Tianye, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and its association with subcortical volumes : findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.
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3.
  • Meng, Weida, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-dependent epigenetic regulation of DLGAP2 in alcohol use and dependence.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol misuse is a major public health problem originating from genetic and environmental risk factors. Alterations in the brain epigenome may orchestrate changes in gene expression that lead to alcohol misuse and dependence. Through epigenome-wide association analysis of DNA methylation from human brain tissues, we identified a differentially methylated region, DMR-DLGAP2, associated with alcohol dependence. Methylation within DMR-DLGAP2 was found to be genotype-dependent, allele-specific and associated with reward processing in brain. Methylation at the DMR-DLGAP2 regulated expression of DLGAP2 in vitro, and Dlgap2-deficient mice showed reduced alcohol consumption compared with wild-type controls. These results suggest that DLGAP2 may be an interface for genetic and epigenetic factors controlling alcohol use and dependence.
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4.
  • Watanabe, Hiroyuki, et al. (författare)
  • Ipsilesional versus contralesional postural deficits induced by unilateral brain trauma : a side reversal by opioid mechanism
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain Communications. - 2632-1297. ; 2:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unilateral traumatic brain injury and stroke result in asymmetric postural and motor deficits including contralateral hemiplegia and hemiparesis. In animals, a localized unilateral brain injury recapitulates the human upper motor neuron syndrome in formation of hindlimb postural asymmetry with contralesional limb flexion and the asymmetry of hindlimb nociceptive withdrawal reflexes. The current view is that these effects are developed due to aberrant activity of motor pathways that descend from the brain into the spinal cord. These pathways and their target spinal circuits may be regulated by local neurohormonal systems that may also mediate effects of brain injury. Here we evaluate if a unilateral traumatic brain injury induces hindlimb postural asymmetry, a model of postural deficits, and if this asymmetry is spinally encoded and mediated by the endogenous opioid system in rats. A unilateral right-sided controlled cortical impact, a model of clinical focal traumatic brain injury was centered over the sensorimotor cortex and was observed to induce hindlimb postural asymmetry with contralateral limb flexion. The asymmetry persisted after complete spinal cord transection, implicating local neurocircuitry in the development of the deficits. Administration of the general opioid antagonist naloxone and µ-antagonist β-funaltrexamine blocked formation of postural asymmetry. Surprisingly, κ-antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and LY2444296 did not affect the asymmetry magnitude but reversed the flexion side; instead of contralesional (left) hindlimb flexion the ipsilesional (right) limb was flexed. The postural effects of the right-side cortical injury were mimicked in animals with intact brain via intrathecal administration of the opioid κ-agonist U50,488 that induced hindlimb postural asymmetry with left limb flexion. The δ-antagonist naltrindole produced no effect on the contralesional (left) flexion but inhibited formation of the ipsilesional (right) limb flexion in brain-injured rats that were treated with κ-antagonist. The effects of the antagonists were evident before and after spinal cord transection. We concluded that the focal traumatic brain injury-induced postural asymmetry was encoded at the spinal level, and was blocked or its side was reversed by administration of opioid antagonists. The findings suggest that the balance in activity of the mirror symmetric spinal neural circuits regulating contraction of the left and right hindlimb muscles is controlled by receptors; and that this equilibrium is impaired after unilateral brain trauma through side-specific opioid mechanism.
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6.
  • Bakalkin, Georgy, et al. (författare)
  • Unilateral traumatic brain injury of the left and right hemisphere produces the left hindlimb response in rats
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - : Springer. - 0014-4819.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injury and stroke result in hemiplegia, hemiparesis, and asymmetry in posture. The effects are mostly contralateral; however, ipsilesional deficits may also develop. We here examined whether ablation brain injury and controlled cortical impact (CCI), a rat model of clinical focal traumatic brain injury, both centered over the left or right sensorimotor cortex, induced hindlimb postural asymmetry (HL-PA) with contralesional or ipsilesional limb flexion. The contralesional hindlimb was flexed after left or right side ablation injury. In contrast, both the left and right CCI unexpectedly produced HL-PA with flexion on left side. The flexion persisted after complete spinal cord transection suggesting that CCI triggered neuroplastic processes in lumbar neural circuits enabling asymmetric muscle contraction. Left limb flexion was exhibited under pentobarbital anesthesia. However, under ketamine anesthesia, the body of the left and right CCI rats bent laterally in the coronal plane to the ipsilesional side suggesting that the left and right injury engaged mirror-symmetrical motor pathways. Thus, the effects of the left and right CCI on HL-PA were not mirror-symmetrical in contrast to those of the ablation brain injury, and to the left and right CCI produced body bending. Ipsilateral effects of the left CCI on HL-PA may be mediated by a lateralized motor pathway that is not affected by the left ablation injury. Alternatively, the left-side-specific neurohormonal mechanism that signals from injured brain to spinal cord may be activated by both the left and right CCI but not by ablation injury.
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7.
  • Bazov, Igor, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Downregulation of the neuronal opioid gene expression concomitantly with neuronal decline in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human alcoholics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular changes in cortical areas of addicted brain may underlie cognitive impairment and loss of control over intake of addictive substances and alcohol. Prodynorphin (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin (DYNs) opioid peptides which target kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). DYNs mediate alcohol-induced impairment of learning and memory, while KOR antagonists block excessive, compulsive-like drug and alcohol self-administration in animal models. In human brain, the DYN/KOR system may undergo adaptive changes, which along with neuronal loss, may contribute to alcohol-associated cognitive deficit. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing the expression levels and co-expression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns of PDYN and KOR (OPRK1) genes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) between human alcoholics and controls. Postmortem brain specimens of 53 alcoholics and 55 controls were analyzed. PDYN was found to be downregulated in dlPFC of alcoholics, while OPRK1 transcription was not altered. PDYN downregulation was confined to subgroup of subjects carrying C, a high-risk allele of PDYN promoter SNP rs1997794 associated with alcoholism. Changes in PDYN expression did not depend on the decline in neuronal proportion in alcoholics, and thereby may be attributed to transcriptional adaptations in alcoholic brain. Absolute expression levels of PDYN were lower compared to those of OPRK1, suggesting that PDYN expression is a limiting factor in the DYN/KOR signaling, and that the PDYN downregulation diminishes efficacy of DYN/KOR signaling in dlPFC of human alcoholics. The overall outcome of the DYN/KOR downregulation may be disinhibition of neurotransmission, which when overactivated could contribute to formation of alcohol-related behavior.
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8.
  • Bazov, Igor, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Dynorphin and κ-Opioid Receptor Dysregulation in the Dopaminergic Reward System of Human Alcoholics.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - : Springer. - 0893-7648 .- 1559-1182. ; 55:8, s. 7049-7061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular changes induced by excessive alcohol consumption may underlie formation of dysphoric state during acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal which leads to craving and relapse. A main molecular addiction hypothesis is that the upregulation of the dynorphin (DYN)/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent individuals causes the imbalance in activity of D1- and D2 dopamine receptor (DR) expressing neural circuits that results in dysphoria. We here analyzed post-mortem NAc samples of human alcoholics to assess changes in prodynorphin (PDYN) and KOR (OPRK1) gene expression and co-expression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns. To address alterations in D1- and D2-receptor circuits, we studied the regulatory interactions between these pathways and the DYN/KOR system. No significant differences in PDYN and OPRK1 gene expression levels between alcoholics and controls were evident. However, PDYN and OPRK1 showed transcriptionally coordinated pattern that was significantly different between alcoholics and controls. A downregulation of DRD1 but not DRD2 expression was seen in alcoholics. Expression of DRD1 and DRD2 strongly correlated with that of PDYN and OPRK1 suggesting high levels of transcriptional coordination between these gene clusters. The differences in expression and co-expression patterns were not due to the decline in neuronal proportion in alcoholic brain and thereby represent transcriptional phenomena. Dysregulation of DYN/KOR system and dopamine signaling through both alterations in co-expression patterns of opioid genes and decreased DRD1 gene expression may contribute to imbalance in the activity of D1- and D2-containing pathways which may lead to the negative affective state in human alcoholics.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 24
  • [1]23Nästa

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