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Sökning: WFRF:(Sauerwein W)

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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1.
  • McCall, Matthew B B, et al. (författare)
  • Early interferon-gamma response against Plasmodium falciparum correlates with interethnic differences in susceptibility to parasitemia between sympatric Fulani and Dogon in Mali.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0022-1899 .- 1537-6613. ; 201:1, s. 142-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Interethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria provide a unique opportunity to explore immunological correlates of protection. The Fulani of Sahelian Africa are known for their reduced susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, compared with surrounding tribes, yet the immunology underlying this is still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that mononuclear cells from Fulani elicit >10-fold stronger interferon (IFN)-gamma production following a 24-h in vitro coincubation with asexual parasites than cells from sympatric Dogon. This response appears to be specific for P. falciparum among a panel of other human pathogens and is independent of the lower number of regulatory T cell counts present in Fulani. IFN-gamma responses in both tribes were inversely correlated with peripheral parasite density as quantified by nucleic acid sequenced-based amplification, but responses of Fulani remained significantly stronger than those of Dogon after adjustment for concurrent parasitemia, suggesting that hard-wired immunological differences underlie the observed protection. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the value of early IFN-gamma responses to P. falciparum as a correlate of anti-parasite immunity, not only in this setting but also in the wider context of malaria, and support the development of malaria vaccines aimed at inducing such responses.
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2.
  • McCall, Matthew B B, et al. (författare)
  • Persistence of full-length caspase-12 and its relation to malaria in West and Central African populations
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Cytokine Network. - 1148-5493 .- 1952-4005. ; 21:2, s. 77-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The full-length (L-) variant of caspase-12 is believed to predispose to sepsis. It has been replaced in the genome of most human populations by the (S-) variant, which leads to premature termination of translation. Strikingly, the L-allele is still widely prevalent in African populations, presumably due to a counterbalancing selective force specific to this continent, for which malaria is a prime candidate.Methods. We investigated associations between caspase-12 genotype and malarial parameters in three West-African populations, in studies encompassing immunological, clinical and obstetric data. Results. The caspase-12 L-allele was found at frequencies of 11-34%. Plasmodium falciparum-stimulated mononuclear cells from S/L heterozygote donors produced stronger interferon-γ and interleukin-10 responses than S/S homozygotes (p = 0.011 and p = 0.023 in uninfected and infected donors respectively). Nevertheless, we found no association between caspase-12 genotype and either the presentation of severe malaria or individual clinical parameters in sick children. Amongst pregnant women, the caspase-12 genotype did not influence peripheral or placental malaria infection, or basic obstetric parameters. Interestingly, perinatal mortality was more frequent in children of both S/S and L/L than S/L mothers, independent of placental P. falciparum-infection.Conclusion. We find little clinical or epidemiological evidence that malaria has contributed to the persistence of functional caspase-12 in Africa, suggesting either that alternative selective forces are at work or that genetic drift underlies its current global distribution.
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3.
  • Reifarthl, R., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. - : IOP Publishing. - 1742-6588 .- 1742-6596. ; 665:1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.
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5.
  • Ferwerda, Bart, et al. (författare)
  • Functional and genetic evidence that the Mal/TIRAP allele variant 180L has been selected by providing protection against septic shock.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:25, s. 10272-10277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adequate responses by our innate immune system toward invading pathogens were of vital importance for surviving infections, especially before the antibiotic era. Recently, a polymorphism in Mal (Ser180Leu, TIRAP rs8177374), an important adaptor protein downstream of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 pathways, has been described to provide protection against a broad range of infectious pathogens. We assessed the functional effects of this polymorphism in human experimental endotoxemia, and we demonstrate that individuals bearing the TIRAP 180L allele display an increased, innate immune response to TLR4 and TLR2 ligands, but not to TLR9 stimulation. This phenotype has been related to an increased resistance to infection. However, an overshoot in the release of proinflammatory cytokines by TIRAP 180L homozygous individuals suggests a scenario of balanced evolution. We have also investigated the worldwide distribution of the Ser180Leu polymorphism in 14 populations around the globe to correlate the genetic makeup of TIRAP with the local infectious pressures. Based on the immunological, clinical, and genetic data, we propose that this mutation might have been selected in West Eurasia during the early settlement of this region after the out-of-Africa migration of modern Homo sapiens. This combination of functional and genetic data provides unique insights to our understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis.
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8.
  • Knöckel, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Identification of Plasmodium Falciparum Sporozoite Membrane Protein Interactions Reveals an Essential Role for the p24 Complex in Host Infection
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. - : Elsevier. - 1535-9476 .- 1535-9484. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sporozoites are a motile form of malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites that migrate from the site of transmission in the dermis through the bloodstream to invade hepatocytes. Sporozoites interact with many cells within the host, but the molecular identity of these interactions and their role in the pathology of malaria is poorly understood. Parasite proteins that are secreted and embedded within membranes are known to be important for these interactions, but our understanding of how they interact with each other to form functional complexes is largely unknown. Here, we compile a library of recombinant proteins representing the repertoire of cell surface and secreted proteins from the P. falciparum sporozoite and use an assay designed to detect extracellular interactions to systematically identify complexes. We identify three protein complexes including an interaction between two components of the p24 complex that is involved in the trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins through the secretory pathway. Plasmodium parasites lacking either gene are strongly inhibited in the establishment of liver-stage infections. These findings reveal an important role for the p24 complex in malaria pathogenesis and show that the library of recombinant proteins represents a valuable resource to investigate P. falciparum sporozoite biology.
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9.
  • Wojcik, Andrzej, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to a mixed beam of low energy neutrons and gamma radiation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Radiological Protection. - 0952-4746 .- 1361-6498. ; 32:3, s. 261-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cells exposed to thermal neutrons are simultaneously damaged by radiations with high and low linear energy transfer (LET). A question relevant for the assessment of risk of exposure to a mixed beam is whether the biological effect of both radiation types is additive or synergistic. The aim of the present investigation was to calculate whether the high and low LET components of a thermal neutron field interact when damaging cells. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to neutrons from the HB11 beam at the Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten, Netherlands, in a 37 degrees C water phantom at varying depths, where the mix of high and low LET beam components differs. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values as well as the expected contributions of protons and photons to the aberration yield were calculated based on a dose response of aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation. The RBE for 10 dicentrics per 100 cells was 3 for mixed beam and 7.2 for protons. For 20 dicentrics per 100 cells the respective values were 2.4 and 5.8. Within the limitations of the experimental setup the results indicate that for this endpoint there is no synergism between the high and low LET radiations.
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