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Sökning: WFRF:(Schellenberg Gerard)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 26
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Basun, H., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and neuropathological features of the arctic APP gene mutation causing early-onset Alzheimer disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Archives of neurology. - 0003-9942 .- 1538-3687. ; 65:4, s. 499-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A majority of mutations within the beta-amyloid region of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene cause inherited forms of intracerebral hemorrhage. Most of these mutations may also cause cognitive impairment, but the Arctic APP mutation is the only known intra-beta-amyloid mutation to date causing the more typical clinical picture of Alzheimer disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe features of 1 Swedish and 1 American family with the previously reported Arctic APP mutation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Affected and nonaffected carriers of the Arctic APP mutation from the Swedish and American families were investigated clinically. In addition, 1 brain from each family was investigated neuropathologically. RESULTS: The clinical picture, with age at disease onset in the sixth to seventh decade of life and dysfunction in multiple cognitive areas, is indicative of Alzheimer disease and similar to the phenotype for other Alzheimer disease APP mutations. Several affected mutation carriers displayed general brain atrophy and reduced blood flow of the parietal lobe as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography. One Swedish case and 1 American case with the Arctic APP mutation came to autopsy, and both showed no signs of hemorrhage but revealed severe congophilic angiopathy, region-specific neurofibrillary tangle pathological findings, and abundant amyloid plaques. Intriguingly, most plaques from both of these cases had a characteristic ringlike character. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings corroborate that the Arctic APP mutation causes a clinical and neuropathological picture compatible with Alzheimer disease.
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2.
  • Escott-Price, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Wide Analysis Detects Two New Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e94661-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. Principal Findings: In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4x10(-6)) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9x10(-8)) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. Significance: The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.
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3.
  • Jones, Lesley, et al. (författare)
  • Convergent genetic and expression data implicate immunity in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 11:6, s. 658-671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heritable with 20 genes showing genome-wide association in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). To identify the biology underlying the disease, we extended these genetic data in a pathway analysis. Methods: The ALIGATOR and GSEA algorithms were used in the IGAP data to identify associated functional pathways and correlated gene expression networks in human brain. Results: ALIGATOR identified an excess of curated biological pathways showing enrichment of association. Enriched areas of biology included the immune response (P = 3.27 X 10(-12) after multiple testing correction for pathways), regulation of endocytosis (P = 1.31 X 10(-11)), cholesterol transport (P = 2.96 X 10(-9)), and proteasome-ubiquitin activity (P = 1.34 X 10(-6)). Correlated gene expression analysis identified four significant network modules, all related to the immune response (corrected P = .002-.05). Conclusions: The immime response, regulation of endocytosis, cholesterol transport, and protein ubiquitination represent prime targets for AD therapeutics.
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4.
  • Kalimo, Hannu, et al. (författare)
  • The Arctic AβPP mutation leads to Alzheimer's disease pathology with highly variable topographic deposition of differentially truncated Aβ
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - 2051-5960. ; 1:1, s. 60-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Arctic mutation (p.E693G/p.E22G)fs within the β-amyloid (Aβ) region of the β-amyloid precursor protein gene causes an autosomal dominant disease with clinical picture of typical Alzheimer's disease. Here we report the special character of Arctic AD neuropathology in four deceased patients.RESULTS: Aβ deposition in the brains was wide-spread (Thal phase 5) and profuse. Virtually all parenchymal deposits were composed of non-fibrillar, Congo red negative Aβ aggregates. Congo red only stained angiopathic vessels. Mass spectrometric analyses showed that Aβ deposits contained variably truncated and modified wild type and mutated Aβ species. In three of four Arctic AD brains, most cerebral cortical plaques appeared targetoid with centres containing C-terminally (beyond aa 40) and variably N-terminally truncated Aβ surrounded by coronas immunopositive for Aβx-42. In the fourth patient plaque centres contained almost no Aβ making the plaques ring-shaped. The architectural pattern of plaques also varied between different anatomic regions. Tau pathology corresponded to Braak stage VI, and appeared mainly as delicate neuropil threads (NT) enriched within Aβ plaques. Dystrophic neurites were scarce, while neurofibrillary tangles were relatively common. Neuronal perikarya within the Aβ plaques appeared relatively intact.CONCLUSIONS: In Arctic AD brain differentially truncated abundant Aβ is deposited in plaques of variable numbers and shapes in different regions of the brain (including exceptional targetoid plaques in neocortex). The extracellular non-fibrillar Aβ does not seem to cause overt damage to adjacent neurons or to induce formation of neurofibrillary tangles, supporting the view that intracellular Aβ oligomers are more neurotoxic than extracellular Aβ deposits. However, the enrichment of NTs within plaques suggests some degree of intra-plaque axonal damage including accumulation of hp-tau, which may impair axoplasmic transport, and thereby contribute to synaptic loss. Finally, similarly as the cotton wool plaques in AD resulting from exon 9 deletion in the presenilin-1 gene, the Arctic plaques induced only modest glial and inflammatory tissue reaction.
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6.
  • Pinto, Dalila, et al. (författare)
  • Convergence of Genes and Cellular Pathways Dysregulated in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American journal of human genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 94:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10(-15), ∼3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.
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8.
  • Van Deerlin, Vivian M, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants at 7p21 are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 42:3, s. 234-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP). FTLD-TDP is frequently familial, resulting from mutations in GRN (which encodes progranulin). We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP through a genome-wide association study of 515 individuals with FTLD-TDP. We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium block on 7p21 that contains TMEM106B. Three SNPs retained genome-wide significance following Bonferroni correction (top SNP rs1990622, P = 1.08 x 10(-11); odds ratio, minor allele (C) 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.71). The association replicated in 89 FTLD-TDP cases (rs1990622; P = 2 x 10(-4)). TMEM106B variants may confer risk of FTLD-TDP by increasing TMEM106B expression. TMEM106B variants also contribute to genetic risk for FTLD-TDP in individuals with mutations in GRN. Our data implicate variants in TMEM106B as a strong risk factor for FTLD-TDP, suggesting an underlying pathogenic mechanism.
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9.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 19:20, s. 4072-4082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
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10.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 21:21, s. 4781-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the contribution of common variation to ASD risk is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating association of individual SNPs, we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest p-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. By contrast, allele-scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case-status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele-score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect ASD risk but their individual effects are modest.
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