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Sökning: WFRF:(Schernhammer E)

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1.
  • Pearce, Neil E, et al. (författare)
  • IARC Monographs : 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 507-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' failures to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans.OBJECTIVES: The authors of this paper are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We have examined here criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. We review the history of IARC evaluations and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed.DISCUSSION: We conclude that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various discipline and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed.CONCLUSIONS: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.
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  • Dittrich, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ESMO OPEN. - 2059-7029. ; 1:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMOappointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Recent progress in the field of cancer research has indeed resulted in diagnostic and therapeutic innovations such as targeted therapies as a standard therapeutic approach or personalised cancer medicine specialised training for medical oncology trainees. Thus, several new chapters on technical contents such as molecular pathology, translational research or molecular imaging and on conceptual attitudes towards human principles like genetic counselling or survivorship have been integrated in the GC. The GC edition 2016 consists of 12 sections with 17 subsections, 44 chapters and 35 subchapters, respectively. Besides renewal in its contents, the GC underwent a principal formal change taking into consideration modern didactic principles. It is presented in a template-based format that subcategorises the detailed outcome requirements into learning objectives, awareness, knowledge and skills. Consecutive steps will be those of harmonising and implementing teaching and assessment strategies.
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  • Bonde, Jens Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Work at night and breast cancer - report on evidence-based options for preventive actions
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. - 0355-3140 .- 1795-990X. ; 38:4, s. 380-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive actions, 16 researchers in basic, epidemiological and applied sciences convened at a workshop in Copenhagen 26-27 October 2011. This paper summarizes the evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies and presents possible recommendations for prevention of the effects of night work on breast cancer. Among those studies that quantified duration of shift work, there were statistically significant elevations in risk only after about 20 years working night shift. It is unclear from these studies whether or not there is a modest but real elevated risk for shorter durations. Hence, restriction of the total number of years working night shift could be one future preventive recommendation for shift workers. The diurnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland with peak in secretory activity during the night is a good biochemical marker of the circadian rhythm. Disruption of the diurnal melatonin secretion pattern can be diminished by restricting the number of consecutive night shifts. Reddish light and reduced light intensity during work at night could potentially help diminish the inhibitory activity of light with strong intensity on the melatonin secretion, but further mechanistic insight is needed before definite recommendations can be made. Earlier or more intensive mammography screening among female night shift worker is not recommended because the harm benefit ratio in this age group may not be beneficial. Preventive effects of melatonin supplementation on breast cancer risk have not been clearly documented, but may be a promising avenue if a lack of side effects can be shown even after long-term ingestion. Women with previous or current breast cancer should be advised not to work night shifts because of strong experimental evidence demonstrating accelerated tumor growth by suppression of melatonin secretion. Work during the night is widespread worldwide. To provide additional evidence-based recommendations on prevention of diseases related to night shift work, large studies on the impact of various shift schedules and type of light on circadian rhythms need to be conducted in real work environments.
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  • Sigurdardottir, Lara G., et al. (författare)
  • Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Rhythms. - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 0748-7304 .- 1552-4531. ; 31:5, s. 461-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p < 0.001). Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin did not differ significantly by presence of cysts or calcification. By using an innovative method for pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.
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8.
  • Sigurdardottir, Lara G., et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disruption among older men and risk of prostate cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 22:5, s. 872-879
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although positive associations have consistently been reported between sleep disruption and breast cancer, less is known about its potential role in prostate cancer.Methods: Within the prospective AGES-Reykjavik cohort study, we followed 2,102 men recruited in 20022006 until the end of 2009. Participants answered questions on sleep disruption. Information on the occurrence of prostate cancer was obtained through record linkages across the Icelandic Cancer Registry. We used Cox regression models with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate HRs of prostate cancer by symptoms of sleep disruption.Results: During follow-up, 135 men (6.4%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Compared with men without sleep disruption, those with problems falling and staying asleep were at significantly increased risk of prostate cancer [HR, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2-3.7)], respectively, with increasing sleep disruption severity. When restricted to advanced prostate cancer (>= stage T3 or lethal disease), these associations became even stronger [HR 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.2) and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.1-9.7)]. The results did not change after excluding from the analyses men who woke up during the night, indicative of nocturia, suggesting limited risk of reverse association.Conclusions: Our data suggest that certain aspects of sleep disruption may confer an increased risk of prostate cancer and call for additional, larger studies with longer follow-up times.Impact: Prostate cancer is one of the leading public health concerns in men; if confirmed in future studies, the association between sleep disruption and prostate cancer risk may open new avenues for prevention.
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