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Sökning: WFRF:(Schiestl Florian P.)

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1.
  • Junker, Robert R., et al. (författare)
  • Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays : Biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137. ; 220:3, s. 739-749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals.
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2.
  • Steinbauer, MJ, et al. (författare)
  • Identification, synthesis and activity of sex pheromone gland components of the autumn gum moth (Lepidoptera : Geometridae), a defoliator of Eucalyptus
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Chemoecology. - : Birkhäuser Verlag. - 1423-0445 .- 0937-7409. ; 14:3-4, s. 217-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is native to Australia and can be a pest of plantation eucalypts. Field-collected and laboratory-reared female autumn gum moths were dissected to remove glands likely to contain components of the sex pheromone. Using gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), three compounds were identified from female extracts, namely (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene, 1-hexadecanol and 1-octadecanol (confirmed by comparison with synthetic samples). Nonadecatriene elicited an antennal response in male autumn gum moth during gas chromatographic analyses combined with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). In electroantennogram (EAG) recording male M. privata antennae responded to the nonadecatriene. Nonadecatriene was synthesised via Kolbe electrolysis, starting with (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid (linolenic acid) and propanoic acid or via an alternative four-step method also starting from linolenic acid. In field trials (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene proved attractive to male moths. Thus, we conclude that (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene is a sex pheromone component of autumn gum moth. This component has been identified in extracts from other geometrids in the same subfamily, Ennominae. However, to our knowledge this is the first example where (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene has been found in females and also proved attractive to male moths when presented on its own. Our results are discussed in relation to other geometrid pheromones.
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3.
  • Ayasse, Manfred, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of reproductive strategies in the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys sphegodes: How does flower-specific variation of odor signals influence reproductive success?
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Evolution. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1558-5646. ; 54:6, s. 1995-2006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The orchid Ophrys sphegodes Miller is pollinated by sexually excited males of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea, which are lured to the flowers by visual cues and volatile semiochemicals. In O. sphegodes, visits by pollinators are rare. Because of this low frequency of pollination, one would expect the evolution of strategies that increase the chance that males will visit more than one flower on the same plant; this would increase the number of pollination events on a plant and therefore the number of seeds produced. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we identified more than 100 compounds in the odor bouquets of labellum extracts from O. sphegodes; 24 compounds were found to be biologically active in male olfactory receptors based on gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Gas chromatography (GC) analyses of odors from individual flowers showed less intraspecific variation in the odor bouquets of the biologically active compounds as compared to nonactive compounds. This can be explained by a higher selective pressure on the pollinator-attracting communication signal. Furthermore, we found a characteristic variation in the GC-EAD active esters and aldehydes among flowers of different stem positions within an inflorescence and in the n-alkanes and n-alkenes among plants from different populations. In our behavioral field tests, we showed that male bees learn the odor bouquets of individual flowers during mating attempts and recognize them in later encounters. Bees thereby avoid trying to mate with flowers they have visited previously, but do not avoid other flowers either of a different or the same plant. By varying the relative proportions of saturated esters and aldehydes between flowers of different stem positions, we demonstrated that a plant may take advantage of the learning abilities of the pollinators and influence flower visitation behavior. Sixty-seven percent of the males that visited one flower in an inflorescence returned to visit a second flower of the same inflorescence. However, geitonogamy is prevented and the likelihood of cross-fertilization is enhanced by the time required for the pollinium deposited on the pollinator to complete its bending movement, which is necessary for pollination to occur. Cross-fertilization is furthermore enhanced by the high degree of odor variation between plants. This variation minimizes learned avoidance of the flowers and increases the likelihood that a given pollinator would visit several to many different plants within a population.
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4.
  • Cozzolino, Salvatore, et al. (författare)
  • Herbivory increases fruit set in Silene latifolia : a consequence of induced pollinator-attracting floral volatiles?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology. - 0098-0331 .- 1573-1561. ; 41:7, s. 622-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the effect of herbivory on plant reproduction has been investigated in some detail, little is known about how herbivores affect floral signalling. Here, we investigated the effect of foliar herbivory by the African Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) on floral signalling and fruit set in the White Campion (Silene latifolia). We found no effects of herbivory on floral traits involved in visual signalling (flower number, corolla diameter, calyx length, petal length) or in amount of nectar produced. However, Spodoptera-infested plants emitted higher amounts of the two floral volatiles, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and β-ocimene, than control plants. Open pollinated, infested plants also were found to produce more fruits than control plants, but only with nocturnal pollinators. Experimental addition of the two induced floral volatiles to non-infested Silene flowers also led to the production of more fruits with nocturnal pollination. This suggests that higher fruit production in herbivore-infested plants was caused by increased nocturnal pollinator attraction, mediated by the induced floral emission of these two volatiles. Our results show that the effects of herbivory on plant reproductive success are not necessarily detrimental, as plants can compensate herbivory with increased investment in pollinator attraction.
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5.
  • Page, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e98755-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Specialization in plant-insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F-2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of a-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds alpha-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization.
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6.
  • Schiestl, Florian P., et al. (författare)
  • Generalized olfactory detection of floral volatiles in the highly specialized Greya-Lithophragma nursery pollination system
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Arthropod-Plant Interactions. - : Springer. - 1872-8855 .- 1872-8847. ; 15:2, s. 209-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Volatiles are of key importance for host-plant recognition in insects. In the pollination system of Lithophragma flowers and Greya moths, moths are highly specialized on Lithophragma, in which they oviposit and thereby pollinate the flowers. Floral volatiles in Lithophragma are highly variable between species and populations, and moths prefer to oviposit into Lithophragma flowers from populations of the local host species. Here we used gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to test whether Greya moths detect specific key volatiles or respond broadly to many volatiles of Lithophragma flowers. We also addressed whether olfactory detection in Greya moths varies across populations, consistent with a co-evolutionary scenario. We analyzed flower volatile samples from three different species and five populations of Lithophragma occurring across a 1400 km range in the Western USA, and their sympatric female Greya politella moths. We showed that Greya politella detect a broad range of Lithophragma volatiles, with a total of 23 compounds being EAD active. We chemically identified 15 of these, including the chiral 6, 10, 14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (hexahydrofarnesyl acetone), which was not previously detected in Lithophragma. All investigated Lithophragma species produced the (6R, 10R)-enantiomer of this compound. We showed that Greya moths detected not only volatiles of their local Lithophragma plants, but also those from allopatric populations/species that they not encounter in local populations. In conclusion, the generalized detection of volatiles and a lack of co-divergence between volatiles and olfactory detection may be of selective advantage for moths in tracking hosts with rapidly evolving, chemically diverse floral volatiles. 
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7.
  • Schiestl, Florian P, et al. (författare)
  • Sex pheromone mimicry in the early spider orchid (Ophrys sphegodes): patterns of hydrocarbons as the key mechanism for pollination by sexual deception
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. - : Springer. - 1432-1351. ; 186:6, s. 567-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract We investigated the female-produced sex pheromone of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea and compared it with floral scent of the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys sphegodes which is pollinated by Andrena nigroaenea males. We identified physiologically and behaviorally active compounds by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and behavioral tests in the field. Dummies scented with cuticle extracts of virgin females or of O.sphegodes labellum extracts elicited significantly more male reactions than odorless dummies. Therefore, copulation behavior eliciting semiochemicals are located on the surface of the females' cuticle and the surface of the flowers. Within bee and orchid samples, n-alkanes and n-alkenes, aldehydes, esters, all-trans-farnesol and all-trans-farnesyl hexanoate triggered electroantennographic responses in male antennae. Most of the alkanes and alkenes occurred in similar patterns both in the bees and orchids. O. sphegodes leaf extracts contained mostly the same compounds but in different proportions. In behavioral tests with synthetic compounds, blends of alkenes triggered significantly more approaches and pounces of the males whereas alkanes were not more attractive than odorless dummies. Since alkanes and alkenes together were most attractive, we conclude they constitute the bees' sex pheromone as well as the pseudocopulation-behavior releasing orchid-odor bouquet.
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8.
  • Travnicek, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of Botany. - : Oxford University Press. - 0305-7364. ; 110:5, s. 977-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted 2 of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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