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Sökning: WFRF:(Schinnerer Eva)

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1.
  • Brunetti, Nathan, et al. (författare)
  • Highly turbulent gas on GMC scales in NGC 3256, the nearest luminous infrared galaxy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 500:4, s. 4730-4748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the highest resolution CO (2-1) observations obtained to date (0.25 arcsec) of NGC 3256 and use them to determine the detailed properties of the molecular interstellar medium in the central 6 kpc of this merger. Distributions of physical quantities are reported from pixel-by-pixel measurements at 55 and 120 pc scales and compared to disc galaxies observed by PHANGS-ALMA (Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby GalaxieS with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array). Mass surface densities range from 8 to 5500 M-circle dot pc(-2) and velocity dispersions from 10 to 200 km s(-1). Peak brightness temperatures as large as 37 K are measured, indicating the gas in NGC 3256 may be hotter than all regions in nearby disc galaxies measured by PHANGS-ALMA. Brightness temperatures even surpass those in the overlap region of NGC 4038/9 at the same scales. The majority of the gas appears unbound with median virial parameters of 7-19, although external pressure may bind some of the gas. High internal turbulent pressures of 10(5)-10(10) K cm(-3) are found. Given the lack of significant trends in surface density, brightness temperature, and velocity dispersion with physical scale we argue the molecular gas is made up of a smooth medium down to 55 pc scales, unlike the more structured medium found in the PHANGS-ALMA disc galaxies.
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2.
  • Izumi, Takuma, et al. (författare)
  • ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMILLIMETER DENSE MOLECULAR GAS TRACERS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE-1 ACTIVE NUCLEUS OF NGC 7469
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 811:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 1 observations of the central kiloparsec region of the luminous type. 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.'' 5x0.'' 4 = 165 x 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide. bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), CS(7-6), and partially CO(3-2) line maps, as well as the 860 mu m continuum. The region consists of the central similar to 1 '' component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of similar to 1.'' 5-2.'' 5. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3-2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated toward the central similar to 1 '', suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anticorrelated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust-obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4-3)/HCO+(4-3) and HCN(4-3)/CS(7-6) are higher at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) position than at the starburst ring, which is consistent with our previous findings (submillimeter-HCN enhancement). However, the HCN(4-3)/HCO+(4-3) ratio at the AGN position of NGC 7469 (1.11 +/- 0.06) is almost half of the corresponding value of the low-luminosity type. 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 (2.0 +/- 0.2), despite the more than two orders of magnitude higher X-ray luminosity of NGC 7469. But the ratio is comparable to that of the close vicinity of the AGN of NGC 1068 (similar to 1.5). Based on these results, we speculate that some heating mechanisms other than X-ray (e.g., mechanical heating due to an AGN jet) can contribute significantly for shaping the chemical composition in NGC 1097.
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3.
  • Izumi, Takuma, et al. (författare)
  • Submillimeter ALMA Observations of the Dense Gas in the Low-Luminosity Type-1 Active Nucleus of NGC 1097
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 65:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first 100 pc scale view of the dense molecular gas in the central similar to 1.3 kpc of the type-1 Seyfert NGC 1097, traced by HCN (J = 4-3) and HCO+ (J = 4-3) lines afforded with ALMA band 7. This galaxy shows significant HCN enhancement with respect to HCO+ and CO in the low-J transitions, which seems to be a common characteristic in AGN environments. Using the ALMA data, we consider the characteristics of the dense gas around this AGN, and search for the mechanism of HCN enhancement. We find a high HCN (J = 4-3) to HCO+ (J = 4-3) line ratio in the nucleus. The upper limit of the brightness temperature ratio of HCN (nu(2) = 1(1f), J = 4-3) to HCN (J = 4-3) is 0.08, which indicates that IR pumping does not significantly affect the pure rotational population in this nucleus. We also find a higher HCN (J = 4-3) to CS (J = 7-6) line ratio in NGC 1097 than in starburst galaxies, which is more than 12.7 on the brightness temperature scale. Combined with similar observations from other galaxies, we tentatively suggest that this ratio appears to be higher in AGN-host galaxies than in pure starburst ones, similar to the widely used HCN to HCO+ ratio. LTE and non-LTE modeling of the observed HCN and HCO+ lines using J = 4-3 and 1-0 data from ALMA, and J = 3-2 data from SMA, reveals a high HCN to HCO+ abundance ratio (5 <= [HCN]/[HCO+] <= 20: non-LTE analysis) in the nucleus, and that the high-J lines (J = 4-3 and 3-2) are emitted from dense (10(4.5) cm(-3) <= n(H2) <= 10(6) cm(-3)), hot (70 K <= T-kin <= 550 K) regions. Finally we propose that high-temperature chemistry is more plausible to explain the observed enhanced HCN emission in NGC 1097 than pure gas-phase PDR/XDR chemistry.
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4.
  • Izumi, Takuma, et al. (författare)
  • SUBMILLIMETER-HCN DIAGRAM FOR ENERGY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CENTERS OF GALAXIES
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 818:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compiling data from literature and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array archive, we show enhanced HCN(4-3)/HCO+(4-3) and/or HCN(4-3)/CS(7-6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN. enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect that this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect, were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN to HCO+ and HCN to CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even greater than or similar to 10 are a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN. enhancement. However, a counterargument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs than in SB galaxies can also be a plausible scenario. Although we cannot fully distinguish. these two scenarios at this moment owing to an insufficient amount of multi-transition, multi-species data, the former scenario is indicative of abnormal chemical composition in AGNs. Regarding the actual mechanism to realize the composition, we suggest that it is difficult with conventional gas-phase X-ray-dominated region ionization models to reproduce the observed high line ratios. We might have to take into account other mechanisms such as neutral-neutral reactions that are efficiently activated in high-temperature environments and/or mechanically heated regions to further understand the high line ratios in AGNs.
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5.
  • Tomičić, Neven, et al. (författare)
  • Two Orders of Magnitude Variation in the Star Formation Efficiency across the Premerger Galaxy NGC 2276
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : IOP Publishing. - 2041-8205. ; 869:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first spatially resolved (∼0.5 kpc) measurements of the molecular gas depletion time τ depl across the disk of the interacting spiral galaxy NGC 2276, a system with an asymmetric morphology in various star formation rate (SFR) tracers. To estimate τ depl, we use new NOEMA observations of the 12CO(1-0) emission tracing the bulk molecular gas reservoir in NGC 2276, and extinction-corrected Hα measurements obtained with the PMAS/PPaK integral field unit for robust estimates of the SFR. We find a systematic decrease in τ depl of 1-1.5 dex across the disk of NGC 2276, with a further, abrupt drop in τ depl of ∼1 dex along the galaxy's western edge. The global τ depl in NGC 2776 is τdepl = 0.55 Gyr, consistent with literature measurements for the nearby galaxy population. Such a large range in τ depl on subkiloparsec scales has never previously been observed within an individual isolated or premerger system. When using a metallicity-dependent molecular gas conversion factor the variation decreases by 0.5 dex. We attribute the variation in τ depl to the influence of galactic-scale tidal forces and ram pressure on NGC 2276's molecular interstellar medium. Our observations add to the growing body of numerical and observational evidence that galaxy-galaxy interactions significantly modify the molecular gas properties and star-forming activity within galactic disks throughout the interaction, and not just during the final merger phase.
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