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Sökning: WFRF:(Schlünssen Vivi)

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  • Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational risk of COVID-19 related hospital admission in Denmark 2020–2021 : a follow-up study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. - : Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. - 0355-3140 .- 1795-990X. ; 49:1, s. 84-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Mounting evidence indicates increased risk of COVID-19 among healthcare personnel, but the evidence on risks in other occupations is limited. In this study, we quantify the occupational risk of COVID-19-related hospital admission in Denmark during 2020-2021.Methods: The source population included 2.4 million employees age 20-69 years. All information was retrieved from public registers. The risk of COVID-19 related hospital admission was examined in 155 occupations with at least 2000 employees (at-risk, N=1 620 231) referenced to a group of mainly office workers defined by a COVID-19 job exposure matrix (N=369 341). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed by Poisson regression.Results: During 186 million person-weeks of follow-up, we observed 2944 COVID-19 related hospital admissions in at-risk occupations and 559 in referents. Adjusted risk of such admission was elevated in several occupations within healthcare (including health care assistants, nurses, medical practitioners and laboratory technicians but not physiotherapists or midwives), social care (daycare assistants for children aged 4-7, and nursing aides in institutions and private homes, but not family daycare workers) and transportation (bus drivers, but not lorry drivers). Most IRR in these at-risk occupations were in the range of 1.5-3. Employees in education, retail sales and various service occupations seemed not to be at risk.Conclusion: Employees in several occupations within and outside healthcare are at substantially increased risk of COVID-19. There is a need to revisit safety measures and precautions to mitigate viral transmission in the workplace during the current and forthcoming pandemics.
  • Budnik, Lygia Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment : DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6673. ; 13:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and allergies, are predictable and preventable. Consequently, preventative action could lead to decreasing disease morbidity and mortality for many of the NCDs that are of major public concern. DiMoPEx plans to catalyze and stimulate interaction of scientists with policy-makers in attacking these exposure-related diseases.
  • Christensen, Stine Holmegaard, et al. (författare)
  • A clear urban-rural gradient of allergic rhinitis in a population-based study in Northern Europe
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European clinical respiratory journal. - : Informa UK Limited. - 2001-8525. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The protective effect of farm upbringing on allergic rhinitis is well known, but how upbringing in other environments influences the development of allergic rhinitis is scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between place of upbringing and pet keeping in childhood and allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood.METHODS: The population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Estonia born in 1945-1973. This paper analyses 13,376 participants of the third study wave. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb, and inner city. Pets in the home at birth and during childhood were recorded. Data were analysed using adjusted logistic regression models.RESULTS: Livestock farm upbringing predicted less adult allergic rhinitis [odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 0.54-0.85] and nasal symptoms (OR 0.82, 0.68-0.99) than city upbringing, and an urban-rural gradient with decreasing risk per level of urbanisation was observed (OR 0.92, 0.88-0.94). Pets in the home at birth (OR 0.78, 0.68-0.88) and during childhood (OR 0.83, 0.74-0.93) were associated with less subsequent allergic rhinitis. Pet keeping did not explain the protective effect of place of upbringing.CONCLUSION: Risk of allergic rhinitis and nasal symptoms in adulthood was inversely associated with the level of urbanisation during upbringing. Pets at birth decreased the risk further, but did not explain the urban-rural gradient. Persistent beneficial effects of microbial diversity in early life might be an explanation for the findings.
  • Christiansen, Alexandra G., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of skin sensitization and dermatitis among epoxy-exposed workers in the wind turbine industry
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Dermatology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0007-0963 .- 1365-2133. ; 187:6, s. 988-996
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A high prevalence of skin sensitization and dermatitis has been reported among workers exposed to epoxy components. Objectives: To estimate the risk of skin sensitization and dermatitis among workers exposed to epoxy components during production of wind turbine blades while using comprehensive safety measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 180 highly epoxy-exposed production workers and 41 nonexposed office workers was conducted at two wind turbine blade factories in Denmark. Participants underwent a skin examination, were tested with a tailored patch test panel including epoxy-containing products used at the factories, and answered a questionnaire. Results: Sixteen production workers (8·9%) were sensitized to an epoxy component compared with none of the office workers. Skin sensitization was more frequent within the first year of exposed employment. Strong selection bias by atopic status was indicated. Among nonatopic workers, the prevalence of dermatitis was higher among production workers (16·4%) than among office workers [6·5%, odds ratio (OR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6–9·1] and higher among the sensitized workers (43·8%) than the nonsensitized workers (14·6%, OR 4·5, 95% CI 1·6–12·7). Resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and F were the most frequent sensitizers. One of the four workers sensitized to epoxy components used at the factories did not react to the epoxy resin of the TRUE test® panel. Conclusions: Despite comprehensive skin protection, sensitization and dermatitis are prevalent among highly epoxy-exposed workers in the wind turbine industry in Denmark. Our findings document the need for intensified preventive efforts and emphasize the importance of tailored patch testing. What is already known about this topic? Epoxy components are well-known sensitizers of the skin. A high prevalence of skin sensitization and dermatitis has been reported among workers exposed to epoxy components. Comprehensive protective equipment is recommended when working with epoxy components. What does this study add? Despite comprehensive skin protection, skin sensitization and dermatitis are prevalent among epoxy-exposed workers. We found that 40% of workers sensitized to epoxy products had dermatitis. Only 75% of the sensitized workers were detected by the epoxy resin of the TRUE test®, which emphasizes the importance of tailored testing.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
  • Dratva, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 19:11, s. 1944-1951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys.DESIGN: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model.SETTING: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since.SUBJECTS: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017).RESULTS: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25·0 kg/m2 in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74 % of the variance among women and 62 % among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI.CONCLUSIONS: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.
  • Hagström, Katja, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to softwood dust in the wood industry
  • 2016. - 30
  • Ingår i: The quality of air. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 9780444636058 - 9780444636065 ; , s. 801-823
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Heldin, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical remission of asthma and allergic rhinitis : in a longitudinal population study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Asthma and Allergy. - : Dove press. - 1178-6965. ; 15, s. 1569-1578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are chronic diseases, some patients experience periods of remission. Information on prognostic factors associated with the remission of asthma and allergic rhinitis is valuable in resource prioritization. This study investigated factors associated with the clinical remission of asthma and allergic rhinitis.Methods: In the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study, data was collected with questionnaires in stage one (RHINE I, 1989–1992) and two follow-ups (RHINE II, 1999–2001 and RHINE III, 2010–2012) from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia. Clinical remission was defined as having reported asthma or allergic rhinitis in RHINE I or RHINE II but not in RHINE III.Results: Of 13,052 participants, 975 (7.5%) reported asthma in RHINE I or RHINE II, and 3379 (25.9%) allergic rhinitis. Clinical remission of asthma and allergic rhinitis was found in 46.4% and 31.8%, respectively. Living in Estonia (OR (95% CI) 2.44 (1.22– 4.85)) and living in an apartment (1.45 (1.06–1.98)) were related to remission of asthma, while subjects reporting allergic rhinitis (0.68 (0.51–0.90)), asthma onset ≤ 12 years of age (0.49 (0.35–0.68)), receiving treatment with antibiotics for respiratory illness (0.64 (0.47– 0.87)) were less likely to have asthma remission. Factors related to a higher likelihood of remission of allergic rhinitis were no asthma at baseline, age ≥ 58 years in RHINE III, allergic rhinitis onset after 12 years of age, living in rural areas as a child, having only a primary school education and not being pregnant.Conclusion: Clinical remission was found in almost one-half of those with asthma and one-third of persons with allergic rhinitis. Coexisting allergic symptoms were associated with less clinical asthma remission. Age, asthma symptoms and environmental factors in childhood, such as living in a rural area, were found to influence the clinical remission of allergic rhinitis.
  • Holm, Mathias, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of smoking cessation : a longitudinal study in a large cohort of smokers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 132, s. 164-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are few studies on predictors of smoking cessation in general populations. We studied the smoking cessation rate in relation to several potential predictors, with special focus on respiratory and cardiovascular disease.Methods: Smokers (n = 4636) from seven centres in Northern Europe, born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire in 1999–2001 (the RHINE study) were followed up with a new questionnaire in 2010–2012. Altogether 2564 answered the questionnaire and provided complete data on smoking. Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs).Results: A total of 999 subjects (39%) stopped smoking during the study period. The smoking cessation rate was 44.9/1000 person-years. Smoking cessation was more common with increasing age, higher education and fewer years of smoking. Asthma, wheeze, hay fever, chronic bronchitis, diabetes and hypertension did not significantly predict smoking cessation, but smokers hospitalized for ischaemic heart disease during the study period were more prone to stopping smoking (HR 3.75 [2.62–5.37]).Conclusions: Successful smoking cessation is common in middle-aged smokers, and is associated with few smoking years and higher education. A diagnosis of respiratory disease does not appear to motivate people to quit smoking, nor do known cardiovascular risk factors; however, an acute episode of ischaemic heart disease encouraged smoking cessation in our study population.
  • Holmila, Reetta, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene in wood dust-related sinonasal cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 127:3, s. 578-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causal role of work-related exposure to wood dust in the development of sinonasal cancer has long been established by numerous epidemiologic studies. To study molecular changes in these tumors, we analyzed TP53 gene mutations in 358 sinonasal cancer cases with or without occupational exposure to wood dust, using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. A significant association between wood-dust exposure and adenocarcinoma histology was observed [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.6, 95% confidence interval (Cl), 5.0-31.6]. TP53 mutations occurred in all histologies, with an overall frequency of 77%. TP53 mutation positive status was most common in adenocarcinoma (OR 2.0, 95% Cl, 1.1-3.7; compared with squamous cell carcinoma), and mutation positivity showed an overall, nonsignificant association with wood-dust exposure (OR 1.6, 95% Cl, 0.8-3.1). Risk of TP53 mutation was significantly increased in association with duration (>= 24 years, OR 5.1, 95% Cl, 1.5-17.1), average level (>2 mg/m(3); OR 3.6, 95% Cl, 1.2-10.8) and cumulative level (>= 30 mg/m(3) x years; OR 3.5, 95% Cl, 1.2-10.7) of wood-dust exposure; adjustment for formaldehyde affected the ORs only slightly. Smoking did not influence the occurrence of TP53 mutation; however, it was associated with multiple mutations (p = 0.03). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to demonstrate a high prevalence of TP53 mutation-positive cases in a large collection of sinonasal cancers with data on occupational exposure. Our results indicate that mutational mechanisms, in particular TP53 mutations, are associated with work-related exposure to wood dust in sinonasal cancer.
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