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Sökning: WFRF:(Schwab Stone M)

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1.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors Associated with Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence among American Inner-City Youth : A Longitudinal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Substance Use & Misuse. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 1082-6084 .- 1532-2491. ; 55:3, s. 358-366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Early alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for later alcohol dependence, as well as social and mental health problems. In this study, we investigate the risk factors (internalizing and externalizing behaviors) associated with early alcohol consumption over a period of 1 year, and examine whether the association is sex-specific. Methods: U.S. inner-city adolescents (N = 1785, Mean age = 12.11) were assessed and reassessed in the sixth and seventh grades (Mean age = 13.10). Self-reported information was obtained on the lifetime level of alcohol consumption, internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress [PTS]), and externalizing behaviors (sensation seeking, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers). Associations between the variables were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: In an adjusted SEM analysis drinking by the sixth grade was primarily associated with externalizing behaviors, whereas PTS was linked to lower levels of alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption and greater externalizing behaviors by the sixth grade predicted higher alcohol consumption by the seventh grade, whereas anxiety and African American ethnicity were associated with less alcohol consumption. No sex differences were found in the association between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and drinking. However, in the adjusted SEM analysis female sex predicted higher lifetime consumption by the seventh grade. Conclusion: Sensation seeking behavior, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers should be regarded as risk factors and taken into consideration when planning prevention efforts in order to decrease alcohol use in early adolescence.
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2.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Violence exposure and psychopathology in urban youth : the mediating role of posttraumatic stress.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. - 0091-0627 .- 1573-2835. ; 35:4, s. 578-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Posttraumatic stress fully mediated the relationships between victimization and depression and anxiety in girls, and partially so in boys. In addition, posttraumatic stress partially mediated the relationships between violence exposure and commission of violence in boys. Current findings support the longitudinal effects of violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Posttraumatic stress represents a unique mechanism for the development of psychopathology in girls and is also related to negative outcomes in boys. These findings have direct implications for prevention and rehabilitation efforts among violence exposed youth.
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4.
  • Frey, Ariel, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescents in transition : school and family characteristics in the development of violent behaviors entering high school.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development. - 0009-398X .- 1573-3327. ; 40:1, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.
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5.
  • Löfving–Gupta, S., et al. (författare)
  • Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth : risk and protective factors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 50:4, s. 539-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Method: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. Results: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Conclusion: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.
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6.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • ADHD symptoms and associated psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents from the European north of Russia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders. - 1087-0547 .- 1557-1246. ; 12:1, s. 54-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia.METHOD: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports.RESULTS: Prevalence of individual ADHD symptoms ranges between 3.3% and 35%. Only 8.9% of boys and 3.6% of girls have positive ratings on six items in either inattention or hyperactivity subtype. These adolescents fare significantly worse regarding externalizing but not internalizing problems. Compared to girls with ADHD, boys with ADHD report higher levels of violent and nonviolent delinquency and are described by teachers as having more conduct problems. Possible ADHD status is associated with depressive symptoms in boys but not in girls.CONCLUSION: The estimates of ADHD prevalence rates obtained in this study are similar to those of other countries, suggesting the need for identification and treatment of the disorder. Evaluation of associated disruptive behavior disorders and depression, particularly in boys, is warranted.
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7.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Depressive symptoms and associated psychopathology in urban adolescents : a cross-cultural study of three countries.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. - 0022-3018 .- 1539-736X. ; 194:2, s. 106-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study aimed to compare cross-cultural trends of comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, prosocial beliefs, and perceptions of risk in adolescents with and without clinical levels of self-reported depressive symptoms. The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was conducted in a representative sample of 3309 adolescents 14 to 17 years old from urban communities in the United States (N = 1343), Belgium (N = 946), and Russia (N = 1009). In all three countries, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. The findings also demonstrate that in both genders, depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as lower levels of prosocial beliefs and low perceptions of harm from risk-taking behavior. Depressed boys had relatively higher levels of externalizing problems than depressed girls. Greater levels of internalizing problems observed in depressed youth, as compared with their nondepressed counterparts, were not gender-specific. Current findings suggest that the relationships between depression and comorbid psychopathology are not culture-specific and have similar patterns in different populations.
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8.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire : Russian validation of the teacher version and comparison of teacher and student reports.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence. - 0140-1971 .- 1095-9254. ; 35:1, s. 87-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To confirm factor structure of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and to compare teacher and student reports in Russian youth.METHOD: The SDQ and psychopathology measures were completed by teachers in a representative sample of urban adolescents (N = 528). The factor structure was examined on two randomly selected split-halves of the sample, and using a gender split. The functional impairment score was predicted by the SDQ problem scales.RESULTS: The fit for all models was acceptable. The fit did not decrease when applying increasing constraints in the random-split model, but became significantly worse for the gender model, suggesting lack of measure invariance. SDQ problem scales explained 37% of functional impairment variance. Significant scale interaction (emotional problems*peer problems and conduct problems*hyperactivity) suggest that combination of these problems produces an additional impact on functioning.CONCLUSIONS: The SDQ teacher report may represent a potentially useful screener for children and youth.
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9.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire : the self-report version in American urban and suburban youth.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychological Assessment. - 1040-3590 .- 1939-134X. ; 20:2, s. 175-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examined the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in urban inner-city and suburban general population samples of American youth. The SDQ was administered to 4,661 predominantly minority urban youth (mean age = 13.0 years, SD = 2.02) and 937 predominantly Caucasian suburban youth (mean age = 14.0 years, SD = 1.56). The authors examined SDQ factor structure using structural equation modeling techniques. The fit for the 5-factor models in both samples was very good (comparative fit index = .96-.97). However, the factor loadings and, correspondingly, the scale reliabilities for most of the SDQ scales (except for Emotional Problems) were low, which suggests poor specificity of the items. Subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 3-factor structure had a comparable model fit and better internal consistency of the scales. The study concluded that, although the SDQ scales do conform reasonably well to a 5-factor model, the scales are unsatisfactory in other respects and that, in its present form, the instrument has inadequate psychometric characteristics. Future research is needed for further scale development.
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10.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav V., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and early risk factors for bulimia nervosa symptoms in inner-city youth : gender and ethnicity perspectives
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Eating Disorders. - : Springer Nature. - 2050-2974. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Research on risk factors associated with bulimia nervosa symptoms (BN) in ethnic minorities has been limited. This study adds to the existing literature by providing the ethnicity- and gender-specific prevalence of BN in US inner-city youth and by exploring the longitudinal associations between a clinical level of BN and early risk factors assessed one year previously.METHODS: The study was conducted on a representative sample of predominantly ethnic minority youth (N = 2794; 54.1% female; age 11-16 years old (M(SD) = 12.77(1.29)); 60.0% African-American, 26.1% Hispanic American, 13.9% White). Self-reported information was obtained on BN and early risk factors (e.g., depressive and anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress, somatic complaints). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the longitudinal associations.RESULTS: The 3-month BN prevalence was higher in girls (5.1%) than in boys (2.3%) (ratio 2.22:1). Significant differences in BN rates were found between White and African American students (higher in Whites), whereas Hispanic-Americans did not differ significantly from either group. Individuals with BN had significantly higher levels of early risk factors one year prior.CONCLUSIONS: Timely recognition of BN and associated early risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.
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