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1.
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2.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08002
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries, Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m(3) with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This paper describes in detail the detector components as installed for the first data taking in the summer of 2008.
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3.
  • Abelev, B., et al. (författare)
  • Charge correlations using the balance function in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 723:4-5, s. 267-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, the correlations between the emitted particles can be used as a probe to gain insight into the charge creation mechanisms. In this Letter, we report the first results of such studies using the electric charge balance function in the relative pseudorapidity (Delta eta) and azimuthal angle (Delta phi) in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The width of the balance function decreases with growing centrality (i.e. for more central collisions) in both projections. This centrality dependence is not reproduced by HIJING, while AMPT, a model which incorporates strings and parton rescattering, exhibits qualitative agreement with the measured correlations in Delta phi but fails to describe the correlations in Delta eta. A thermal blast-wave model incorporating local charge conservation and tuned to describe the p(T) spectra and v(2) measurements reported by ALICE, is used to fit the centrality dependence of the width of the balance function and to extract the average separation of balancing charges at freeze-out. The comparison of our results with measurements at lower energies reveals an ordering with root s(NN): the balance functions become narrower with increasing energy for all centralities. This is consistent with the effect of larger radial flow at the LHC energies but also with the late stage creation scenario of balancing charges. However, the relative decrease of the balance function widths in Delta eta and Delta phi, with centrality from the highest SPS to the LHC energy exhibits only small differences. This observation cannot be interpreted solely within the framework where the majority of the charge is produced at a later stage in the evolution of the heavy-ion collision. (C) 2013 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Production of pions, kaons and protons in pp collisions at root s=900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 71:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of pi(+), pi(-), K+, K-, p, and (p) over bar at mid-rapidity has been measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 900 GeV with the ALICE detector. Particle identification is performed using the specific energy loss in the inner tracking silicon detector and the time projection chamber. In addition, time-of-flight information is used to identify hadrons at higher momenta. Finally, the distinctive kink topology of the weak decay of charged kaons is used for an alternative measurement of the kaon transverse momentum (p(t)) spectra. Since these various particle identification tools give the best separation capabilities over different momentum ranges, the results are combined to extract spectra from p(t) = 100 MeV/c to 2.5 GeV/c. The measured spectra are further compared with QCD-inspired models which yield a poor description. The total yields and the mean pt are compared with previous measurements, and the trends as a function of collision energy are discussed.
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5.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 5
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 mu m in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10(5) charged tracks from cosmic rays that have been collected during summer 2008, with the ALICE solenoidal magnet switched off.
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6.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Midrapidity Antiproton-to-Proton Ratio in pp Collisons root s=0.9 and 7 TeV Measured by the ALICE Experiment
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 105:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ratio of the yields of antiprotons to protons in pp collisions has been measured by the ALICE experiment at root s = 0.9 and 7 TeV during the initial running periods of the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement covers the transverse momentum interval 0.45 < p(t) < 1.05 GeV/c and rapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5. The ratio is measured to be R-vertical bar y vertical bar<0.5 = 0.957 +/- 0.006(stat) +/- 0.0014(syst) at 0.9 Tev and R-vertical bar y vertical bar<0.5 = 0.991 +/- 0.005 +/- 0.014(syst) at 7 TeV and it is independent of both rapidity and transverse momentum. The results are consistent with the conventional model of baryon-number transport and set stringent limits on any additional contributions to baryon-number transfer over very large rapidity intervals in pp collisions.
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7.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at root s=900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 693:2, s. 53-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 900 GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) over the transverse momentum range 0.15 < p(T) < 10 GeV/c. The correlation between transverse momentum and particle multiplicity is also studied. Results are presented for inelastic (INEL) and non-single-diffractive (NSD) events. The average transverse momentum for vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8 is < p(T)>(INEL) = 0.483 +/- 0.001 (stat.) +/- 0.007 (syst.) GeV/c and < p(T)>(NSD) = 0.489 +/- 0.001 (stat.) +/- 0.007 (syst.) GeV/c, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger < p(T)> than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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8.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in pp collisions at root s=900 GeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - : American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 82:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the measurement of two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at root s = 900 GeV performed by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Our analysis shows an increase of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss radius with increasing event multiplicity, in line with other measurements done in particle- and nuclear collisions. Conversely, the strong decrease of the radius with increasing transverse momentum, as observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at Tevatron, is not manifest in our data.
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9.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at root s=0.9 and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 68:1-2, s. 89-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged-particle production was studied in proton-proton collisions collected at the LHC with the ALICE detector at centre-of-mass energies 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.4. In the central region (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5), at 0.9 TeV, we measure charged-particle pseudo-rapidity density dN(ch)/d eta = 3.02 +/- 0.01(stat.)(-0.05)(+0.08)(syst.) for inelastic interactions, and dN(ch)/d eta = 3.58 +/- 0.01 (stat.)(-0.12)(+0.12)(syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. At 2.36 TeV, we find dN(ch)/d eta = 3.77 +/- 0.01(stat.)(-0.12)(+0.25)(syst.) for inelastic, and dN(ch)/d eta = 4.43 +/- 0.01(stat.)(-0.12)(+0.17)(syst.) for non-single-diffractive collisions. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from the lower to higher energy is 24.7% +/- 0.5%(stat.)(-2.8)(+5.7)%(syst.) for inelastic and 23.7% +/- 0.5%(stat.)(-1.1)(+4.6)%(syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. This increase is consistent with that reported by the CMS collaboration for non-single-diffractive events and larger than that found by a number of commonly used models. The multiplicity distribution was measured in different pseudorapidity intervals and studied in terms of KNO variables at both energies. The results are compared to proton-antiproton data and to model predictions.
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10.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV with ALICE at LHC
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 68:3-4, s. 345-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pseudorapidity density and multiplicity distribution of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 7 TeV, were measured in the central pseudorapidity region vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1. Comparisons are made with previous measurements at root s = 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV. At root s = 7 TeV, for events with at least one charged particle in |eta vertical bar| < 1, we obtain dN(ch)/d eta = 6.01 +/- 0.01(stat.)(-0.12)(+0.20) (syst.). This corresponds to an increase of 57.6%+/-0.4%(stat.)(-1.8%)(+3.6) (syst.) relative to collisions at 0.9 TeV, significantly higher than calculations from commonly used models. The multiplicity distribution at 7 TeV is described fairly well by the negative binomial distribution.
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