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Sökning: WFRF:(Scofield Paul)

  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
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  • Carneiro, Ana P. B., et al. (författare)
  • A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 57:3, s. 514-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. Here we develop a methodological framework for estimating population-level density distributions of seabirds, integrating tracking data across the main life-history stages (adult breeders and non-breeders, juveniles and immatures). We incorporate demographic information (adult and juvenile/immature survival, breeding frequency and success, age at first breeding) and phenological data (average timing of breeding and migration) to weight distribution maps according to the proportion of the population represented by each life-history stage. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by applying it to 22 species of albatrosses and petrels that are of conservation concern due to interactions with fisheries. Because juveniles, immatures and non-breeding adults account for 47%-81% of all individuals of the populations analysed, ignoring the distributions of birds in these stages leads to biased estimates of overlap with threats, and may misdirect management and conservation efforts. Population-level distribution maps using only adult distributions underestimated exposure to longline fishing effort by 18%-42%, compared with overlap scores based on data from all life-history stages. Synthesis and applications. Our framework synthesizes and improves on previous approaches to estimate seabird densities at sea, is applicable for data-poor situations, and provides a standard and repeatable method that can be easily updated as new tracking and demographic data become available. We provide scripts in the R language and a Shiny app to facilitate future applications of our approach. We recommend that where sufficient tracking data are available, this framework be used to assess overlap of seabirds with at-sea threats such as overharvesting, fisheries bycatch, shipping, offshore industry and pollutants. Based on such an analysis, conservation interventions could be directed towards areas where they have the greatest impact on populations.
  • Cole, Theresa, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient DNA of crested penguins: Testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world's most diverse penguin clade
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 131, s. 72-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human impacts have substantially reduced avian biodiversity in many parts of the world, particularly on isolated islands of the Pacific Ocean. The New Zealand archipelago, including its five subantarctic island groups, holds breeding grounds for a third of the world's penguin species, including several representatives of the diverse crested penguin genus Eudyptes. While this species-rich genus has been little studied genetically, recent population estimates indicate that several Eudyptes taxa are experiencing demographic declines. Although crested penguins are currently limited to southern regions of the New Zealand archipelago, prehistoric fossil and archaeological deposits suggest a wider distribution during prehistoric times, with breeding ranges perhaps extending to the North Island. Here, we analyse ancient, historic and modern DNA sequences to explore two hypotheses regarding the recent history of Eudyptes in New Zealand, testing for (1) human-driven extinction of Eudyptes lineages; and (2) reduced genetic diversity in surviving lineages. From 83 prehistoric bone samples, each tentatively identified as ‘Eudyptes spp.’, we genetically identified six prehistoric penguin taxa from mainland New Zealand, including one previously undescribed genetic lineage. Moreover, our Bayesian coalescent analyses indicated that, while the range of Fiordland crested penguin (E. pachyrhynchus) may have contracted markedly over the last millennium, genetic DNA diversity within this lineage has remained relatively constant. This result contrasts with human-driven biodiversity reductions previously detected in several New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
  • Rayner, Matt J., et al. (författare)
  • Using miniaturized radiotelemetry to discover the breeding grounds of the endangered New Zealand Storm Petrel Fregetta maoriana
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ibis. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0019-1019. ; 157:4, s. 754-766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of breeding sites remains a critical step in species conservation, particularly in procellariiform seabirds whose threat status is of global concern. We designed and conducted an integrative radiotelemetry approach to uncover the breeding grounds of the critically endangered New Zealand Storm Petrel Fregetta maoriana (NZSP), a species considered extinct before its rediscovery in 2003. Solar-powered automated radio receivers and hand-held telemetry were used to detect the presence of birds on three island groups in the Hauraki Gulf near Auckland, New Zealand. At least 11 NZSP captured and radiotagged at sea were detected at night near Te Hauturu-o-Toi/Little Barrier Island with the detection of an incubating bird leading to the discovery of the first known breeding site for this species. In total, four NZSP breeding burrows were detected under mature forest canopy and three adult NZSP and two NZSP chicks were ringed. Telemetry data indicated NZSP showed strong moonlight avoidance behaviour over the breeding site, had incubation shifts of approximately 5days and had a breeding season extending from February to June/July, a different season from other Procellariiformes in the region. Radiotelemetry, in combination with rigorously collected field data on species distribution, offers a valuable technique for locating breeding grounds of procellariiform seabirds and gaining insights into breeding biology while minimizing disturbance to sensitive species or damage to fragile habitat. Our study suggests an avenue for other breeding ground searches in one of the most threatened avian Orders, and highlights the general need for information on the location of breeding sites and understanding the breeding biology in data-deficient birds.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4

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