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Sökning: WFRF:(Sigsgaard Torben)

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  • Elberling, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Soil and Plant Community Characteristics and Dynamics at Zackenberg
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: High-arctic ecosystem dynamics in a changing climate - Ten years of monitoring and research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast Greenland (Advances in Ecological Research). - : Elsevier. - 0065-2504. - 9780123736659 ; 40, s. 223-248
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Arctic soils hold large amounts of nutrients in the weatherable minerals and the soil organic matter, which slowly decompose. The decomposition processes release nutrients to the plant-available nutrient pool as well as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Changes in climatic conditions, for example, changes in the distribution of snow, water balance and the length of the growing season, are likely to affect the complex interactions between plants, abiotic and biotic soil processes as well as the composition of soil micro- and macro-fauna and thereby the overall decomposition rates. These interactions, in turn, will influence soil-plant functioning and vegetation composition in the short as well as in the long term. In this chapter, we report on soils and. plant communities and their distribution patterns in the valley Zackenbergdalen and focus on the detailed investigations within five dominating plant communities. These five communities are located along an ecological gradient in the landscape and are closely related to differences in water availability. They are therefore indirectly formed as a result of the distribution of landforms, redistribution of snow and drainage conditions. Each of the plant communities is closely related to specific nutrient levels and degree of soil development including soil element accumulation and translocation, for example, organic carbon. Results presented here show that different parts of the landscape have responded quite differently to the same overall climate changes the last 10 years and thus, most likely in the future too. Fens represent the wettest sites holding large reactive buried carbon stocks. A warmer climate will cause a permafrost degradation, which most likely will result in anoxic decomposition and increasing methane emissions. However, the net gas emissions at fen sites are sensitive to long-term changes in the water table level. Indeed, increasing maximum active layer depth at fen sites has been recorded together with a decreasing water level at Zackenberg. This is in line with the first signs of increasing extension of grasslands at the expense of fens. In contrast, the most exposed and dry areas have less soil carbon, and decomposition processes are periodically water limited. Here, an increase in air temperatures may increase active layer depth more than at fen sites, but water availability will be critical in determining nutrient cycling and plant production. Field manipulation experiments of increasing temperature, water supply and nutrient addition show that soil-plant interactions are sensitive to these variables. However, additional plant-specific investigations are needed before net effects of climate changes on different landscape and plant communities can be integrated in a landscape context and used to assess the net ecosystem effect of future climate scenarios.
  • Grøndahl, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial and interannual variability of trace gas fluxes in a heterogeneous High Arctic landscape
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: High-arctic ecosystem dynamics in a changing climate - Ten years of monitoring and research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast Greenland (Advances in Ecological Research). - : Elsevier. - 0065-2504. - 9780123736659 ; 40, s. 473-498
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Summertime measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes were carried out over a range of high-arctic ecosystem types in the valley Zackenbergdalen since 1996 using both chamber and eddy covariance methodology. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and CH4 flux data presented reveal a high degree of inter-annual variability within the dominant vegetation types in the valley, but also show distinct differences between them. In particular, the wet and dry parts of the valley show distinct differences. In general, the wet parts of the valley, the fens dominated by white cotton grass Eriophorum scheuchzeri, show high productivity, also in comparison with other sites, whereas CO2 uptake rates in the white arctic bell heather Cassiope tetragona and mountain avens Dryas spp.-dominated heaths are much smaller. Also within the different ecosystem types, a high degree of spatial variability can be documented. The spatial variability both within and between ecosystem types is especially pronounced for the CH4 flux and can, at least partly, be related to differences in vegetation composition and water table level. The importance of the CH4 emission from the various ecosystem types is evaluated both in relation to carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In both wet and drier ecosystem components, inter-annual variability seems best explained through differences in the amount and distribution of snow in spring and the length of the growing season. A large number of replicate chamber measurements carried out over various vegetation types in the valley are used to produce a synthesis of 10 years of flux data available on growing season carbon dynamics and CH4 emission patterns in the individual parts of this high-arctic ecosystem and relates the differences between the ecosystems found in Zackenbergdalen to comparable sites in the circumpolar North.
  • Adhikari, Tara Ballav, et al. (författare)
  • Burden and risk factors of chronic respiratory diseases in Nepal, 1990-2019 : An analysis of the global burden of diseases study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Health Science Reports. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2398-8835. ; 6:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality globally and in Nepal. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the trend and the burden of CRDs in Nepal. This study reports the trend of the burden and contribution of major risk factors to CRDs in Nepal from 1990 to 2019.Methods: This study is an observational study using publicly available data from Global Burden of Disease 2019 estimations for Nepal. The age-standardized and age-specific prevalence, incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and risk factors for CRDs in Nepal were extracted to measure the burden and its trend. The data are presented as percentages or as rates per 100,000 population.Results: The age-standardized incidence rate of CRDs in Nepal in 2019 was 913.6 per 100,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 828.7-1000.1), which was an increase of 7.7% from 848.6 per 100,000 (95% UI: 780.2-918.2) in 1990. However, the age-standardized prevalence rate [4453/100,000 (4234.2-4671.8) in 1990; 4457.1/100,000 (4255.2-4666.8) in 2019] was almost stagnant. Most CRDs attributed to deaths and DALYs were due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Conclusions: Air pollution and smoking are the main risk factors for DALYs due to CRDs in Nepal. This surging burden of the incidence rate of CRDs in Nepal calls for more effective actions to curb the risk factors and diseases.
  • Adhikari, Tara Ballav, et al. (författare)
  • Community-based intervention for prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Nepal (COBIN-P trial) : study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BMC. - 1745-6215 .- 1745-6215. ; 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the commonest of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nepal. Risk factors like indoor and outdoor air pollution, a high prevalence of smoking, and the lack of awareness of COPD make it a serious public health concern. However, no attempt has been made in Nepal to estimate its burden and address the disease at the community level.Method: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a community-based health educational intervention administered by Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) on the prevention and management of COPD. An open-label, two-group, community-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be implemented in the semi-urban area of Pokhara Metropolitan city (former Lekhnath Municipality) located in the Kaski district of Nepal. The estimated sample size of the intervention will be 1143. The unit of randomization is the ward (administrative unit) of the study area. The follow-up survey will be conducted immediately after 12months of FCHVs-led interventions. The difference in the rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio are the primary outcomes and the change in the proportion of modifiable risk factors of COPD, health-related quality of life scores, and change in knowledge of COPD will be secondary outcomes.Discussion: This study will estimate the burden of COPD, the magnitude of risk factors and generate evidence to mobilize community health workers for COPD prevention and management at the community level in Nepal.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03797768. Registered on January 9, 2019.
  • Adhikari, Tara Ballav, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Associated Factors in Nepal : Findings from a Community-based Household Survey
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1176-9106 .- 1178-2005. ; 15, s. 2319-2331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) being the commonest non-communicable disease in Nepal, there is limited research evidence estimating the spirometry-based burden of COPD. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its correlates through a community-based survey in Pokhara Metropolitan City, a semiurban area of Western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 1459 adults >= 40 years. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria as a post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70 with the presence of symptoms. COPD was also defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) threshold - FEV1/FVC < LLN cut-off values with the presence of symptoms. Study participants were interviewed about sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics and respiratory symptoms. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results: Spirometry reports were acceptable in 1438 participants. The mean age of the participants was 55 (+/- 10) years, and, 54% were female. The prevalence of GOLD-defined COPD was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.1-10.0) and based on the LLN threshold of 5.4% (95% CI: 4.2-6.6). The multivariate logistic regression showed that increasing age, low body mass index, illiterate, current or former smoker, and biomass fuel smoke increased the odds of COPD in both the definitions. Conclusion: COPD is highly prevalent at community level and often underdiagnosed. Strategies aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of COPD, especially for the elderly, illiterate, and reducing exposure to smoking and biomass fuel smoke and childhood lung infection could be effective.
  • Annesi-Maesano, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile : objectives, study protocol and descriptive data.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine. - : PAGEPress Publications. - 1828-695X .- 2049-6958. ; 8:1, s. 71-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants.OBJECTIVES: We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study.METHODS: 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN.RESULTS: The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly.CONCLUSIONS: The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility.
  • Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Ulla, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and lung cancer incidence in the ELAPSE pooled cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence.Methods: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status).Results: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m(3) PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative.Conclusions: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.
  • Ballav Adhikari, Tara, et al. (författare)
  • Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living with COPD in a Semiurban Area of Western Nepal : A Community-Based Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: COPD. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1541-2555 .- 1541-2563. ; 18:3, s. 349-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nepal. It is a progressive lung disease and has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reflects the health- and disease-related facets of quality of life. Limited studies have assessed the impact of COPD on HRQOL and associated factors in Nepal. This study is based on a cross-sectional household survey data from a semiurban area of Western Nepal. A validated Nepali version of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to measure the HRQOL. COPD was defined together with post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction and the presence of respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction was defined as Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.70. COPD was diagnosed in 122 participants, and their median (IQR) total score of HRQOL was 40 (26 - 69); the score of symptoms, activity, and impact area were 53 (37 - 74), 57 (36 - 86), and 26 (13 - 62), respectively. The overall HRQOL was significantly different in terms of age, occupational status, physical activity, and comorbidities. Disease severity and the presence of respiratory symptoms had a significant difference in HRQOL (p = 0.0001). Appropriate measures to improve conditions and addressing the associated factors like respiratory symptoms and enhancing physical activity are necessary and important.
  • Bentayeb, Malek, et al. (författare)
  • Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents Living in nursing homes in Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 45:5, s. 1228-1238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio was highly significantly related to elevated levels of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <0.1 mu m (PM0.1) (adjusted OR 8.16, 95% CI 2.24-29.3) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 3.74, 95% CI 1.06-13.1). Excess risks for usual breathlessness and cough were found with elevated PM10 (aOR 1.53 (95% CI 1.15-2.07) and aOR 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-10.3), respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15-2.20) and aOR 1.56 (95% CI 1.03-2.41), respectively). Excess risks for wheeze in the past year were found with PM0.1 (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.15-7.02) and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exhaled carbon monoxide with formaldehyde (aOR 3.49 (95% CI 1.17-10.3) and aOR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.55), respectively). Breathlessness and cough were associated with higher carbon dioxide. Relative humidity was inversely related to wheeze in the past year and usual cough. Elderly subjects aged >= 80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were modulated by ventilation.
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